4. Verbal Categories (Morphological forms. Transitivity. Reflexivity.) Morphology of the verb



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4. Verbal Categories (Morphological forms. Transitivity. Reflexivity.)



Morphology of the verb
Verbal inflection manifested in verb morphology is present both in English and Polish.

The verbal categories we’re going to investigate are:




for English:

person 1st, 2nd, 3rd

number singular, plural

tense present, past

aspect1 perfect, imperfect

aspect2 progressive, nonprogressive

mood indicative, subjunctive, conditional
for Polish:

person 1st, 2nd, 3rd

number singular, plural

gender masculine, feminine, neuter, virile, non-virile

tense present, past, future

aspect perfective, imperfective

mood indicative, conditional

The forms of the English verb phrase:



  1. the base form eat

  2. S-form eats

  3. Past form ate

  4. Present Participle eating

  5. Past Participle eaten

When combined with auxiliaries and modals they give us 12 (simple and complex) verbal groups (passive omitted):




  1. Infinitive (base form) (to write)

  2. present tense form (I write, he writes)

  3. past form (he wrote)

  4. present participle (writing)

  5. past participle (written)

  6. modal + base (I can write)

  7. have + past participle (I have written, I had written)

  8. be + present participle (I am writing, I was writing)

  9. have + past participle of be + present participle (I have been writing, I had been writing)

  10. modal + have + past participle (I could have written)

  11. modal + be + present participle (I can be writing)

  12. modal + have + past participle of be + present participle (I could have been writing)

The forms of the Polish verb phrase:


The situation with Polish verbs is a little bit more complex because each Polish verb has two bases: the present tense base and the past tense base.


  1. present tense base (myj-)

  2. past tense base (my-)

  3. infinitive (myć)

  4. past form (myłem)

  5. present (active) participle (myjący)

  6. passive participle (myty)

  7. past participle (umyty)

  8. anticipatory participle (umywszy)

When combined with auxiliaries and modals they give us 14 (simple and complex) verbal groups (passive omitted as a separate form):




  1. present tense forms (piszę ,piszesz...)

  2. past tense forms (pisałem, pisałeś...)

  3. imperative forms (pisz, piszcie)

  4. infinitive (pisać)

  5. present (active) participle (piszący)

  6. passive participle (pisany)

  7. past participle (napisany)

  8. anticipatory participle (napisawszy)

  9. future form (napiszę)

  10. conditional forms (pisałbym, pisałbyś...)

  11. auxiliary być + infinitive (będę pisać, będziesz pisać...)

  12. modal + infinitive (mogę pisać)

  13. auxiliary + past participle + infinitive (będę chciał pisać)

  14. modal + past participle of być + infinitive (mogłem był pisać)



Transitivity and Reflexivity
1. Intransitive verbs

Profile one (real-life) event participant; there is no object in a clause/sentence.



2. Transitive verbs

Profile two (real-life) participants syntactically realised as the sentence subject and object.



2a. Ditransitive verbs

Profile three (real-life) participants syntactically realised as the sentence subject and objects.



3. Reflexive verbs

Profile one (real-life) participant split into two semantic roles: Agent and Experiencer/Affected. The Agent role is syntactically realised as subject and the role of Experiencer/Affected is realised as object. Because the subject and object are co-referential (i.e. they refer to the same real-life participant), the object is realised as a reflexive pronoun.

Technically, the number of participants is between one and two.


Reflexive verbs in English:


  1. verbs which can occur in reflexive constructions, but also in other constructions without a reflexive pronoun following them;




  1. “true” reflexive verbs which are always followed by a reflexive pronoun (there are not many of them in English:

He absents himself from classes.

Mary availed herself of that opportunity.

They pride themselves on their success.
Reflexive verbs in Polish:


  1. verbs which always occur with the reflexive pronoun się (their English counterparts are usually intransitive verbs)

    • verbs referring to weather phenomena e.g. błyskać się, chmurzyć się

    • verbs describing the psychological states e.g. wahać się ,spodziewać się, bać się, upierać się, etc.

    • verbs denoting actions e.g. kłócić się, spieszyć się, przyglądać się, etc.




  1. verbs which can occur with the reflexive pronoun się and without it (e.g. cieszyć się, niepokoić się, gniewać się, denerwować się, irytować się, etc.)

    • some verbs denoting psychological states; the presence or absence of się depends on the semantic role of the subject:

      1. if the subject has the role of Experiencer, then się is obligatory

Janka zachwyca się tym krajobrazem.

      1. if the subject has the role of Cause, then się is absent

Ten krajobraz zachwyca Jankę.


Participles




Present (active) participle

running water, dripping taps, floating wreckage; a map marking political boundaries; Smiling she entered the room. She entered the room smiling. I saw him passing. I found him standing at the door. Not knowing the language...


NOTE:

Drinking water - participle

Drinking water is vital – noun (gerund)
Past participle

stolen money, a written report, fallen trees. She enters, accompanied by her mother.


Perfective participle

  1. active: Heaving read the instructions, he snatches up the fire extinguisher.

  2. Passive: Having been bitten twice, the postman refused to deliver our letters unless we chained our dog up.





Adjectival Participles

active participle: student piszący test, jadący autobus
passive participle: list pisany po angielsku, urodzony w niedzielę, podarty płaszcz, rozbite szkło, zgromadzone dzieci
Adverbial participles

coexistential prticiple: Wychodzą nie żegnając się z nikim. Idąc, myślał o teście.
Anticipatory participle: Napisawszy test opuścił salę. Zjadłszy obiad poczuł się lepiej.


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