Jagiellonian university institute of history



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JAGIELLONIAN UNIVERSITY

INSTITUTE OF HISTORY



Jakub Basista, PhD

Polish pre-20th Century History

(Meeting 3)

Piast Poland – political developments. The Hungarian Connection

  • The birth and early years of the Polish state.

  • Period of Fragmentation.

  • Reconstruction of Polish state borders.

  • Poland in Europe – relations with the Teutonic Knights, and Poland’s neighbors.

  • Times of Kazimierz the Great and Hungarian Succession

  • Louis of Hungary on the Polish throne. Jadwiga and the Lithuanian connection.



PIAST DYNASTY


- beginning →1370

Mieszko I

~960-992

966 baptism of Poland

968 bishop Jordan arrives in Poland (mission in Poznań)

972 Mieszko I’s victory against Hodon, German prince

984 bishop Jordan dies; Unger from Turingen takes his place

987-989 Mieszko I incorporates south territories with Kraków

990 Mieszko I incorporates Silesia

Bolesław Chrobry K (letter K denotes rules, who were crowned)

992-1025

997 death of bishop Adalbert (Wojciech) on a mission in Prussia

999 Adalbert proclaimed saint and patron of Poland; Adalbert’s brother becomes first head of Polish church in Gniezno

1000 meeting in Gniezno with the German emperor Otto III

establishing of Polish church hierarchy (Gniezno, Krakow, Wrocław, Kołobrzeg)

1002-1018 wars against German princes

1013 campaign against Kiev

1025 Chrobry’s coronation



Mieszko II K

1025-1034

1031 following Mieszko II’s campaigns to Saxony, a campaign is staged by Germans and Ruthenians; Mieszko escapes to Czech kingdom, Poland looses all territories annexed by Chrobry

1031-32 antifeudal and antiChristian reaction in Poland’s territory

Kazimierz Odnowiciel

1034-1058

1038 Czechs’ (Brzetysław I) raid against Gniezno; relics of St. Adalbert are stolen; Kraków becomes the centre of Poland’s political life

1039 Kazimierz returns and starts reconstruction of state

1044 Benedictine cloister founded in Tyniec outside Kraków



Bolesław Śmiały K

1058-1079

1060-63 Bolesław interferes in Hungary

1068 Bolesław interferes in Kiev

1070 conflict with Czechs

1076 coronation

1079 conflict with bishop Stanisław ends with the assassination of the bishop and king fleeing from Poland



Władysław Herman

1079-1102

1085 Czech prince Wratysław II announced king of Poland by the Emperor (according to the Czech tradition)



Bolesław Krzywousty

1102-1138

1106 Bolesław’s conflict with his brother Zygmunt

1111 or 1112 after long conflict Zygmunt returns to Poland, where he is blinded and dies

1113-16 first Polish chronicle of Anonymous Gall (Gal Anonim)

1116 Gdańsk incorporated into Poland

1119 west Pomerania incorporated

1124 changes and enlarging of church organisation in Poland (this reform will last till 17th c.)


  1. Act of Succession →beginning of the feudal fragmentation of Poland

Władysław Wygnaniec


1138-1146

1146 – Władysław remains in a constant conflict with his stepbrothers; Church hierarchy backs the younger brothers excommunicating Władysław, who flees and the oldest of the younger brothers gains the throne in Kraków


Bolesław Kędzierzawy


1146-1173

1163 – Władysław’s sons are invited back to Poland after their father’s death and get his heritage


Mieszko III Stary


1173-1177

Kazimierz Sprawiedliwy

1177-1194
  1. Congress of Łęczyca – concessions of the duke in favour of the church


  2. western Pomerania falls out of Poland’s reach

1195 Poland in fact divides into three independent patrimonia Little Poland, Great Poland, Śląsk

Mieszko III Stary


1198-1202

Leszek Biały

1202-1227

1222 Dominicans arrive in Kraków

1226 Konrad Mazowiecki invites the Holy Order of Our Lady of the German House to christianise Prussia

Henryk Brodaty

1232-1238

1137 Franciscans arrive in Kraków

Henryk Pobożny


1238-1241

1241 Mongol invasion; Henryk killed in battle of Legnica

Konrad Mazowiecki


1241-1243

Bolesław Wstydliwy

1243-1279

1243 Konrad Mazowiecki expelled from Kraków

1257 location of Kraków

1259/60 second Mongol invasion

1264 Bolesław the Pious of Kalisz issues a privilege for Jews

Leszek Czarny


1279-1287

Henryk IV Probus


1288-1290

1291 Wacław II of Bohemia conquers Little Poland with Kraków

Przemysł II K


1295-1296

Wacław II of Bohemia K


1300-1305

Wacław III of Bohemia K

1306

1308-1309 Teutonic Knights capture Gdańsk and eastern Pomerania


1314 Władysław Łokietek conquers Great Poland


Władysław Łokietek K

1320-1333

1331 battle of Płowce against Teutonic Knights


Kazimierz Wielki K


1333-1370

1335 Congress of Vysehrad (Emperor John of Luxemburg resigns from Polish crown)


1340-1349 Poland occupies Vladimir and Halicz Ruthenia

1355 statutes of Buda (question of taxes and Louis’ heritage of Polish throne)

1357 legal statutes for Great and Little Poland

1364 founding of the university

1364 monarchs’ meeting in Kraków (Emperor Charles IV, Louis of Hungary, Peter – king of Cyprus, other princes and Kazimierz)

Louis of Anjou K


1370-1382

1370 coronation / rule in Poland is conducted by Louis’s mother, Elżbieta (Kazimierz Wielki’s sister)

1374 statute of Kosice – transfer of rights to the Polish crown to Louis’s daughters

1382 Louis dies / Polish lords refuse to accept the regency of Zygmunt of Luxemburg, Louis’s son-in-law

1383 Louis’s widow, Elizabeth of Bosnia desigates her daughter Jadwiga to the Polish throne

Jadwiga Q

1384-1399

1384 Jadwiga arrives in Poland and is crowned

1385 Polish-Lithuanian union in Kreva (Jogaila is to marry Jadwiga, accept Catholicism and incorporate Lithuania to the Polish state) – controversies remain even today, what was the real meaning of the union

1386 baptism of Jogaila, coronation and marriage



Władysław Jagiełło K

1386-1434

1386 Kraków privilege (he promises to nominate officials only after consulting with local lords; no high taxes; payment for wars outside the country; ransom for war prisoners by the crown) – confirmed after coronation in Korczyn

1390 war between Lithuania and Teutonic state

1398 Lithuanian alliance with Teutonic state in return for parts of Samigitia; Lithuanians proclaim Grand Duke Witold their king

1399 death of Jadwiga and her daughter

1399 Lithuanian defeat by Tartars

1400 reform of the university

1401 Polish-Lithuanian union of Wilno and Radom

1409 anti-Teutonic rebellion in Samigitia

1410 war against Teutonic State end with a victory at Grunwald (15 July)

further campaign brings small successes, but Polish-Lithuanian troops fail to capture Malbork (capital castle)

1411 Peace of Toruń with the Teutonic Order

1413 Polish-Lithuanian union of Horodło

1416 Polish delegation to the Council of Constance defends Polish wars against the Teutonic order (Paweł Włodkowic and the notion of just war)

1420 Hussites offer Czech crown to Jagiełło

1422 war against the Teutonic order / nobles’s leve en masse demands privileges – privilege of Czerwińsk (noble’s property immunity – no noble may have his goods confiscated without a proper court sentence)

1423 Warka statutes – enable the nobility to remove a sołtys (land hereditary until now office of a head of a community/village) in specified cases

1424 royal decree against Hussites and practically closing of Polish-Czech border

1425 Statute of Brześć – in return for accepting Jagiellonian legacy on the Polish throne nobles demand personal immunity – the statute is not accepted by the monarch (nobles cut it up with their swords)

1430/33 Jedlnia-Krakow privilege (acceptance of royal heritage in return for Brześc deamnds) – confirmed in Kraków in 1433.



1434 Jagiełło dies




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