Negotiation-an act of negotiating, negotiate(with,for) is to talk with another person or group in order to try to come to an agreement or settle an agreement. (with) to produce an agreement or settle(a piece of business) in this way



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Negotiation-an act of negotiating, 1.negotiate(with,for) is to talk with another person or group in order to try to come to an agreement or settle an agreement. 2.(with) to produce an agreement or settle(a piece of business) in this way.

Negotiating involves a number of language functions such as making proposals, inviting concessions and asking for clarification.



THE LANGUAGE OF NEGOTIATION

1. ASKING FOR A CONCESSION

Would you be prepared to offer….

Would you be willing to offer…

Would you be ready to offer…

Could you offer…

We were wondering if you could offer..



2. MAKING A CONCESSION

We would be willing to give you …

We could offer you …

3. REFUSING TO MAKE CONCESSION

I am afraid that is not possible

Unfortunately, we always

I am afraid that is not acceptable (to us)

We regret we can’t accept your offer

4. TRADING CONCESSIONS POSITIVELY

On condition that you offered .., we could

As long as you offered…, we would be willing

Provided you agreed to …, we would be prepared to accept…



5. TRADING CONCESSIONS NEGATIVELY

Unless…, I don’t think we could

Unless…, we wouldn’t be prepared to

6. SEEKING ACCEPTANCE/COMPROMISE/AN OFFER

Would that be acceptable?

Would that be satisfactory?

Is that acceptable as a compromise?



7. ACCEPTING A COMPROMISE, AN OFFER

We see no objection to that

That seems reasonable

We could agree on that

Przykłady:

Making proposals: I suggest that we….

Expressing opinions: I really feel that…

Disagreeing: I am sorry I did not catch what you said

Offering advice: If I were you…

Asking for further information: Could you tell me something= more about…

Agreeing: I think we could go along with that

Misunderstandings: Could you explain that again…?

Asking for opinion: Could we have your position?

Giving opinions: The way we see it is…

Setting up the procedure: Perhaps we should decide on a procedure first

Opening the negotiation: Our main problem is this

Clarifying positions: We can’t give a clear answer right now

Settling: The last thing we have to discuss is..

Supplementary questions: Can you agree on that?

Seeking a concession: We would expect something in return

Generating options: Shall we consider some alternatives/options?

Agreeing strongly: I completely agree

Agreeing neutrally: I think you are right

Agreeing partially: Although I agree with most of what you have said, I find it difficult to agree with your point about…

Disagreeing strongly: I totally disagree with you

Softening strong disagreeing: With respect,…

Disagreeing neutrally: I feel I must disagree

Softening neutral disagreement: I respect your opinion, of course, however

Disagreeing tactfully: I have some sympathy with your position, but…

POLITENESS IN NEGOTIATION

Polite- having or showing good manners, sensitivity to other people’s feelings and correct social behavior. Opposite rude, impolite.

Preparation

The aim is to create atmosphere in which possibilities can be explored and alternatives generated so that mutual benefit emerges and win-win situation is created. Language should be polite/tentative.



Phrases which can be rude should not be used. The listener can’t be criticized. Explain the situation clearly. Co-operatic atmosphere is needed.

  • Actually,…

  • In fact,…

  • To be honest,…

  • With respect,…

SEEKING INFORMATION AND HANDLING QUESTIONS

Practitioners and researchers agree that asking question to obtain information is an essential part of the information exchange phase of any negotiation or discuss. Indeed, research has shown that seeking information makes up more than 20% of the skilled negotiator’s behavior. What is more, when negotiation is nearing breakdown, questioning is the strategy most frequently used to rescue it.



  • Would you mind saying something about?

  • Could you be more specific?

  • Would you care to develop that idea a little?

Answering questions

1. Playing for time

You’ve raised/mentioned a very important matter/point/aspect/factor

2. Avoiding the question-saying nothing


Public limited company (plc) – sp akcyjna

a buying spree – a short, intesive period of buying

abandoned – opuszczony

abbreviations – skroty

accountant – księgowy

admittedly – trzeba przyznac; co prawda

appoint – wyznaczac

approach –podejscie

askinf for claryfication – pytanie o wyjasnienie

back-office – administrative

claim – zadac

commodity – towar; product that can be sold

company secretary – sekretarz spolki

confident – pewny

configency plan - plan alternatywny

contribute- zasilac

cumbersome – nieporęczny

embark on – start

entrepreneur – przedsiebiorca

household name - powszechnie znane nazwisko

incorporated – spolka posiadajaca osobowosc prawna

in-fighting (infighting) – konflikty wew

inventory – spis inwentarza

limited liability Ltd– sp ZOO

opposite number – odpowiednik

Partnership – spolka cywilna; 2 or more people starting a business together can set up a partnership. All partners are responsible for the debts of the partnership, and profits and losses are shared between them.

peculiar – osobliwy

phenomenal – very unusual

predict - przewidywac

Private limited company – sp ZOO; A company can be formed with a minimum of the two people becomming its shareholders. They must appoint director and company secretary. If the company goes out of business, the responsibility of ieacg shareholder is limited to the amount they have contributed, they have limited liability.

procurement – zaopatrzenie

prolific – plodny; producting a lot

pursue – scigac

remain –zostawac

slump –zalamanie, kryzys

soar – wzbijac sie

Sole Proprietor – wyłączny właściciel

sole trader – firma jednoosobowa

Sole Trader/Proprietor – the simplest way of starting a business. You are self-employed and entirely responsible for all aspects of the managment of your business.

swansong – a person’s last piece of work

tackle – sprzet do łowienia ryb

temptation – pokusa

to drive a hard bargain - twardo walczyć o swoje

trading – targowanie sie

unlimited liability – nieograniczona odpowiedzialnosc

venture – przedsięwzięcie


Public limited company (plc) – sp akcyjna

sole trader – firma jednoosobowa



Sole Proprietorwyłączny właściciel

Sole Trader/Proprietor – the simplest way of starting a business. You are self-employed and entirely responsible for all aspects of the managment of your business.



Partnership – spolka cywilna; 2 or more people starting a business together can set up a partnership. All partners are responsible for the debts of the partnership, and profits and losses are shared between them.

Private limited company – sp ZOO; A company can be formed with a minimum of the two people becomming its shareholders. They must appoint director and company secretary. If the company goes out of business, the responsibility of ieacg shareholder is limited to the amount they have contributed, they have limited liability.

company secretary – sekretarz spolki

appoint – wyznaczac

limited liability Ltd– sp ZOO

contribute- zasilac

incorporated – spolka posiadajaca osobowosc prawna

abbreviations – skroty

tackle – sprzet do łowienia ryb

prolific – plodny; producting a lot

entrepreneur – przedsiebiorca

admittedly – trzeba przyznac; co prawda

household name - powszechnie znane nazwisko

venture – przedsięwzięcie

accountant – księgowy

cumbersome – nieporęczny

back-office – administrative

peculiarosobliwy

abandoned – opuszczony

inventory – spis inwentarza

pursue – scigac

a buying spree – a short, intesive period of buying

soar – wzbijac sie

embark on – start

slump –zalamanie, kryzys

in-fighting (infighting) – konflikty wew

claim – zadac

commodity – towar; product that can be sold

remain –zostawac

confident – pewny

swansong – a person’s last piece of work

phenomenal – very unusual

predict - przewidywac

approach –podejscie

opposite numberodpowiednik

to drive a hard bargain - twardo walczyć o swoje

temptation – pokusa

trading – targowanie sie

askinf for claryfication – pytanie o wyjasnienie

configency plan - plan alternatywny

procurement – zaopatrzenie

unlimited liability – nieograniczona odpowiedzialnosc


Sole Trader ( Sole proprietor) – Trader who owns his own business, manages its affairs, provides the capital, and bears all the risk. Advantages: the owner has complete independence, he has flexibility and freedom of action, close supervision of business affairs is possible, he has personal contact with suppliers and customers, organization of the business is simplified as little capital is required and there are fewer formalities compared with other forms of business, he keeps any profits and does not have to share them with others. Disadvantages: the owner is directly responsible with unlimited liability, he has limited capital which makes difficult to expand, setting up usually requires devoting his own money, he may make wrong decisions because he does not have others to consult.
Partnership – An unregistered business where two or more people (but usually not more than twenty) share the risks and profits according to a partnership agreement. Advantages: more capital may be available compared with sole trader, partners can consult each other and correct decisions are more likely to be made, partners share responsibilities and functional organization is possible, personal contact with customers is still possible, losses are shared. Disadvantages: partners have unlimited liability, there could be disagreements between partners, profits are hared, a partner wishing to withdraw capital could place business in difficulties, the membership of partnership is limited which could make it difficult to raise large sums of capital.
Public Limited Company- plc – A limited company which can offer its shares and debentures to the public. There is normally no limit to the right of its members to transfer their shares to other persons. There is no limit to the total number of members except that there must be at least seven. Advantages: Capital is easier to raise because shareholders have limited liability and members of the public can be invited to buy shares, the company is able to operate on a large scale and obtain the benefits of economies of scale, the advantages for ltd apply equally to plc. Disadvantages: the formation of a public limited company is costly in time and money, a plc can be subject to take-over if another company or person obtains 51% of the voting shares, all disadvantages of ltd apply egually to plc.
Private Limited Company – A limited company which must not invite the public to subscribe for its shares or debentures, and odes not allow its members to transfer their shares without the agreement of the other shareholders. It must have at least two but usually not more than fifty members. Advantages: members’ liability is limited to the amount of capital they have contributed, functional specialization is possible, economies of scale are possible. Disadvantages: incorporation expenses, Companies Acts regulations (it must be registered), loss of personal contacts, ownership and control may be separated, boardroom conflicts sometimes arise, decision-making may be slowed down.


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