|PRZESTRZENIE TEORII 5
ABSTRACT. Łebkowska Anna, Poznawanie siebie i poznawanie innego. Wobec inności literatury [Learning about onself and learning about the other. In the fact of otherness of (in) literature]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 5, Poznań 2005, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 9-26. ISBN 83-232-1605-3. ISSN 1644-6763.
In my paper, I deal with the relationships between the present-day discourse in literature and literature itself: mainly in the aspect of the category of “otherness.” Among many current understandings of that category, I analyse those for which literature is the sphere of what is distinct. That prospect also allows me to identify the experience of “otherness,” being initiated owing to literature, and that only in the manner available to literature. The category of “other-ness” is associated with the same meanings in which it appears in both present-day literature and cultural anthropology, consequently, it is identified with ethnic and gender distinctness, or the area of exclusion, or, just the opposite, the area of inclusion contrary to one’s will, or alienation etc. In my paper, I concentrate on the methods of literary thematicality of learning about oneself and “the other” (I mainly limit myself to personal relationships, or novelistic “I” – “the other” relationships), which are present at various levels of present-day prose. I also take into account those literary strategies which serve the destabilization of both social and literary conventions and demonstrate “the otherness in the otherness” of literature. In conclusion, I point out dangerous trends which appear in literary studies: the one which leads either to excessive ideologization of literature or, vice versa, to excessive unification of the varieties of “otherness” presented in literature.
ABSTRACT. Bielik-Robson Agata, Do dekonstrukcji i z powrotem [Toward deconstruction, and back]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 5, Poznań 2005, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 27-38. ISBN 83-232-1605-3. ISSN 1644-6763.
The concept of the turn belongs to the favourite terms of nowadays humanities. The so called “deconstructive turn” became one of their most cherished clichés, which, as a cliché, immediately calls for a sceptical, typically deconstructionist intervention. In my paper, I question radicality of the deconstructive project by trying to show that deconstruction, despite all the slogans it produced, proclaiming the death of the author and the subject, is far more continuous with modern tradition than it is commonly assumed. Especially, the notion of subjectivity is the one which most stubbornly resists the deconstructive attempts of its “undoing”. I analyse three strategies of deconstruction, created by Paul de Man, Jacques Derrida and Harold Bloom, and conclude by pointing to the dialectical circle based on the concepts of expression and inscription. The traditional “romantic” subject perceives itself as an expressive voice for which writing is merely a secondary means of expression. Deconstruction of de Man and Derrida overturns the “romantic” subject by demonstrating the primacy of the effect of inscription. But the postdeconstructive work of Harold Bloom shows the possibility of reconciliation between expression and inscription which opens the way for the return of the subject, although no longer traditionally conceived.
ABSTRACT. Martuszewska Anna, Tekst dzieła literackiego jako partytura [The text of a literary work as a score]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 5, Poznań 2005, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 39-52. ISBN 83-232-1605-3. ISSN 1644-6763.
The point of departure for the author of this article is a brief presentation of Bolesław Prus’ unpublished notes on the subject of relations of music and literature, stimulating the latter’s interest in this subject. Then the author presents an interpretation of a musical score by Roman Ingarden and later juxtaposes similarities and differences between the score of a work of music with the graphic notation of the text of a literary work (what is most important here is the potential existence of sound in the graphic notation). The article ends with a suggestion that the possibility of comparing results from the kinship or even kinship of both arts.
ABSTRACT. Hejmej Andrzej, Tekst (dźwiękowy) Mirona Białoszewskiego [Text (-sound) of Miron Białoszewski]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 5, Poznań 2005, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 53-74. ISBN 83-232-1605-3. ISSN 1644-6763.
The paper focuses on the interaction between the visual text and sound-text in the works of Miron Białoszewski, especially in his Separate Theatre. In this case, considerations on the subject of textuality show a relation between Białoszewski’s linguistics experiments and contemporary sound poetry. In essence, the sound poetry as an artistic practice (particularly, the sound poetry of Bernard Heidsieck) appears to be an important and inspiring context for interpretation of Białoszewski’s text. Finally, based on the problem of sound-text, many similarities are found between Miron Białoszewski and Bernard Heidsieck.
ABSTRACT. Sobolczyk Piotr, Neologizmy Białoszewskiego [Białoszewski’s Neologisms]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 5, Poznań 2005, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 75-91. ISBN 83-232-1605-3. ISSN 1644-6763.
The article is an attempt to reconsider the problem of the literary neologisms on the ground of poetics treated here, according to the hermeneutics and neoidealistic approaches, as an express-ion of the poet’s way of thinking. So far the problem was dealed with linguistics methods and the author prefers to reformulate it using the rethorics language. The material for this attempt is the “linguistic poetry” of Miron Białoszewski (1922-1983) who often used neologisms in order to express his individuality, to create literary concepts or to shorten his expression. The author proposes the following subdivision of the neologisms: the paragramatic neologism, the contextual neologism, the neoetymologic figure, the contaminatio neologism.
ABSTRACT. Kluba Agnieszka, Poetyki lingwistyczne [Language-centered poetics]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 5, Poznań 2005, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 93-116. ISBN 83-232-1605-3. ISSN 1644-6763.
The work focuses on recognising the features of each individual language-centered poetics, referring to different philosophies and aesthetics. For instance “impeaching the language” (the first generation of linguistic writers) involves opposite results to the imperative “to protect my own language from fabrication and depravation” (New Wave linguistic poets). The opposition “trustfulness-distrustfulness” does not cover all possible complications within the realm of poetic metareflection. Having different opinions about the effectiveness of their own interventions into language these reflections are located between poetical optimism and pessimism. The latter is highly related to what is called “the crisis of language”. The work investigates the role of post-war linguistic poetry in breaking down the conventional optimism of Polish “avant-garde poetic model”, not matching up to the European poetry signed with the names of Mallarmé, Klebnikov, George, Celan and the others.
ABSTRACT. Januszkiewicz Michał, Ku teoretycznej wielości (w sprawie teorii słabych) [Towards theoretical multitude (on the matter of weak theories)]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 5, Poznań 2005, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 117-133. ISBN 83-232-1605-3. ISSN 1644-6763.
This article refers to the problems of disputes over the concept of a literary character and theory (in humanities). The reference to the historical perspective becomes an occasion for the presentation of an attitude which stems from post-modern reflection: the metaphysical (essential) claims are put forward both to the subject and to the manner of studies, they are lifted for the sake of pragmatic and hermeneutic interpretations within this which the author calls weak theories (and the conception of weakness is here in a distinct relationship with philosophical proposals formulated by Gianni Vattura).
ABSTRACT. Przymuszała Beata, W obronie nadinterpretacji (niekoniecznie prawniczej...) – polemika z Fishem [In the defence of overinterpretation (not necessarily the legal one) – a polemic with Fish]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 5, Poznań 2005, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 135-146. ISBN 83-232-1605-3. ISSN 1644-6763.
The formula of “defence of overinterpretation” referred to in the title of this article must be recei-ved in the context of S. Fish’s conception of paninterpretationism, according to which there is no possibility of verification of readings of a text. Fish assumes that we only compare interpretations and we do not have any access to “the text itself”. Arguing with this interpretation, I refer to a legal conception (after all the one used by Fish) of interpretation of laws (confining the analysis to Polish doctrine). In spite of this researcher’s claim (everybody “uses” laws for their own goals) the theory of interpretation indicates the necessity of separating the linguistic exegesis (explanation, interpretation) of a law which becomes a point of reference for the system, functional and axiological interpretation. The possibility of departures from the linguistic interpretation requires the existence of specific conditions threatening the system of values and at the same time is a proof of the importance of this type of interpretation. Thus, differentiation of interpretation takes into account the linguistic dimension of a text, allowing to speak about interpretations which “are not in accordance with the law”.
Transferring these views from the study of the press onto the studies of literature one can see the closeness of this approach to U. Eco’s interpretations (the “intentio operis” conception) or – on Polish grounds – K. Bartoszyński’s and H. Markiewicz’s views.
“The defence of overinterpretation” appears to be a defence of the possibility of differentiating of interpretation and performing its verification.
ABSTRACT. Lubas-Bartoszyńska Regina, Norma i „wolność” formy sonetowej oraz „ryzyko wolności”. (Przykład twórczości kilku poetów współczesnych – belgijskich i polskich) [Norm and “freedom” of the sonnet form and “the risk of freedom”. (An example of works of several poets – Belgian and Polish)]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 5, Poznań 2005, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 147-159. ISBN 83-232-1605-3. ISSN 1644-6763.
Taking into account a few sonnets by two of the twentieth-century Belgian poets and four Polish ones, this paper aims to examine the accomplishment of the sonnets and the freedom of such accomplishment, which is typical of normativism: normativism which increases the risk of classifying this poetic form as sonnet. Reflecting on the greatness of the risk involved in writing this type of poetry in the twentieth century results in distinguishing three levels of the risk: the risk of interpreting the sonnet as a fixed poetic form in view of the pervasiveness of free verse taken as parody, the risk of the second level operating within the genre (breaking the rules of the literary genre), and the risk of the third and deepest level – imbuing the lyric form with extra-poetic and extra-literary elements. The choice of the Polish works was based on the fact that metatextual reflection is to be found there, which generalizes the theoretical meaning of these three levels through the use of metaphorical language.
ABSTRACT. Nowakowski Grzegorz, Wyobraźnia wzrokowa Paula Celana – das Aug, dunkel [The visual imagination of Paul Celan – das Aug, dunkel]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 5, Poznań 2005, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 161-169. ISBN 83-232-1605-3. ISSN 1644-6763.
The article “The Visual Imagination of Paul Celan – das Aug, dunkel” raises the problem of the poet’s search for language and “the place, from where you can see the best perspective”. It shows the number of methodological dilemmas which inevitably result from analysing the visual imagination. It speaks of “the eye” understood as the crucial element of Celan’s poetics. The author questions in his article the common percepcion of Celan as a poet of Shoah (as if) shifting the momentum to the eye. The eye, reduced in the very grammatical form of the word (Auge is turned into Aug), gives the unity to Celan’s work. The eye, the restless wanderer, accompanies this poetry from the first to the last poem. The author of the article ventures to elucidate various aspects of the use of the organ of vision in Celan’s poetry and draws a conclusion that the consistent theory of visual perception is central to Celan’s work.
ABSTRACT. Hendrykowski Marek, U źródeł polskiej krytyki filmowej: Antoni Słonimski [At the source of Polish film criticism: Antoni Słonimski]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 5, Poznań 2005, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 171-185. ISBN 83-232-1605-3. ISSN 1644-6763.
The subject of this study is an almost completely forgotten chapter of the early literary work of Antoni Słonimski, which is his precursory activity on the ground of Polish film criticism of the years 1922-1923 in the columns of the all-Polish daily Kurier Polski. He had his own column there titled “Kinematograph” (Cinematograph). His essays on the cinema were written in the form of light feuilletons. Referring to the current repertoire of Warsaw cinemas, A. Słonimski tried as much as he could to go beyond the current premieres. He interested in a wider perspective which allows to describe cinema as a phenomenon of contemporary culture.
ABSTRACT. Dabert Dobrochna, Sposoby istnienia muzyki klasycznej w filmie fabularnym [The role of classical music in film]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 5, Poznań 2005, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 187-204. ISBN 83-232-1605-3. ISSN 1644-6763.
The article deals with the topic of classical music in film. Classical music can in various ways semantically and aesthetically contribute to the film’s message. It can enrich the film’s message created at the level of words and images, create new and specific musical meanings but also modify or negate meanings created by words and images. The varied roles of classical music in film are explored on many examples of Polish and world cinematography.
ABSTRACT. Nowakowski Jacek, Od teatru okrucieństwa do Grand Guignolu. Śmierć w kinie Andrzeja Żuławskiego [From the theatre of cruetty to Grand Guignol. Death in the cinema of Andrzej Żuławski]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 5, Poznań 2005, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 205-212. ISBN 83-232-1605-3. ISSN 1644-6763.
This essay shows the motif of death in the film works of Andrzej Żuławski in the perspective of the theatre of horror. Starting with Trzecia część nocy (The Third Part of the Night) (1971) until his late work Szamanka (The Shaman Woman) (1996), this film work is shown as evolving from the patronage of the conception of art of Antonin Artaud, serving the transformation of man up to its peculiar autoparody, which is closer to Grand Guignol. The author proves that escalation of cruelty in his works gradually loses its artistic pretext (justification) ceases to be artistically justified (no longer find artistic justification).
ABSTRACT. Kaźmierczak Marek, Wirtualny nadawca w sieci. Wstępna kategoryzacja [Virtual Sender on the Net. An initial Categorization]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 5, Poznań 2005, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 213-241. ISBN 83-232-1605-3. ISSN 1644-6763.
In the result of the emergence of the new media we are faced with unpredictable consequences for the textual communication. Contemporary metaphor of these “unpredictable consequences” is the World Wide Web (www). In this article – titled “Virtual Sender” – I am trying to describe the strong impact of the www exerted on the textual communication. The main issue of this article is the semiological status of the sender in the www. I am interpreting this category in three aspects: syntactic, semantic and pragmatic. Each of these aspects has a prevailing characteristic: for syntactic is an autopoietic function; for the semantic it is non-scaling function and for pragmatic aspect it is an autotheological function.
Using these three aspects I am describing a very important relationship between the tools of communication and the subject of the communication. This article shows the main problem area connected with semiological status of the sender.
ABSTRACT. Jakóbczyk Stanisław, O deontologii metodologii filozofii [On deontology of the methodology of philology]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 5, Poznań 2005, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 243-252. ISBN 83-232-1605-3. ISSN 1644-6763.
A nomothetic character of philological researches, suggested by the quoted authors, requires – if we stay for satisfying at last some main methodological criteria of scientific validity – a publication, a diffusion of texts which are supposed to inform about these researches. They are metatexts from nature of things, the very “texts” being their subjects. However, these subject-texts are included, also as quotations, and thus, they are also published and diffused. The logical and
deontological problem is, that among them may (and even must) appear some morally reprehensible texts. The latter, in their nature, become such (or increase their negative character) precisely as a result of publication and diffusion. Does a philologist act in reprehensible manner?
ABSTRACT. Pawelec Andrzej, Znaczenie ucieleśnione: Propozycje kręgu Lakoffa [“Embodied meaning”. In the circle of Lakoff’s theory]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 5, Poznań 2005, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 255-265. ISBN 83-232-1605-3. ISSN 1644-6763.
In this article I present the idea of “embodied meaning” as developed in the theory of conceptual metaphor by Lakoff and Johnson and in the theory of blending by Turner and Fauconnier. I argue that this approach – despite numerous disclaimers – is close to the generative program introduced by Chomsky, who distinguished the linguistic “surface structure” from the mental (and unconscious) “deep structure”. I make the claim that this understanding of “embodied meaning” is less adequate than the hermeneutical interpretation of meaning as embodied in acts of interpretation.
ABSTRACT. Niziołek Małgorzata, Zdefiniować fantastykę, czyli „fantastyczne” (i nie tylko) teorie literatury fantastycznej [How to define fantasy – fantastic and other theories of fantasy]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 5, Poznań 2005, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 267-278. ISBN 83-232-1605-3. ISSN 1644-6763.
The aim of this paper is to define fantasy through juxtaposing, comparing and sorting existing definitions. Taking into consideration elements of fantasy, such as ambiguity and insecurity, a crack in everyday life and the anxiety of the indefinable, the most controversial issues in fantasy were discussed. In the end, a new pattern of relations between fantasy, fabulousness, science-fiction, and magic was suggested.