to be going to = iść coś robić/ zamierzać to refer to = odnosić się do ( uwaga: ae „reefer” to skręta, joint) spectacular = widowiskowy similar = podobny a lighthouse



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słownictwo do stron 70/71 (Drive)

to be going to = iść coś robić/ zamierzać

to refer to = odnosić się do ( uwaga: AE „reefer” to skręta, joint)

spectacular = widowiskowy

similar = podobny

a lighthouse = latarnia morska

amazing = zdumiewający

the view = widok/ pogląd

to set off =wyruszać

to move around = ruszac się



Destination Australia

Most people’s image of Australia consists of not much more than the Sidney’s Opera House, Ayers Rock and kangaroos. But these famous sights are far from showing the countries cultural diversity. Australia offers great travel experiences, from the vast deserts of the outback and the wonders of the Great Barrier Reef to the cosmopolitan capital of Sidney.



Environment

Australia, a continent of its own and the world’s sixth largest country, is situated south of Indonesia and Papua New Guinea between the Pacific and Indian oceans. Australia measures some 4000 km from north to south. It covers an area of 2,941,000 sq miles (7,618,000 km²) and is inhabited by about 23,000, 000 people. Its official capital is Canberra. The official language is English.



Most of the country is flat desert with very few people. The majority of Australia’s population lives mainly on the east and south-east coast. Australia has a very rich ecosystem, including such plants as eucalypt and gum trees, wattle and banksias, bottlebrushes , paper-barks and tea trees. Australia’s most outstanding feature are its marsupials, mammals that carry their young in a pouch, for example are the kangaroo, the koala and the wombat. Even more amazing is the platypus, an aquatic mammal laying eggs and possessing poisonous spur on its hind legs. Famous is the dingo, a wild dog that probably was introduced to Australia by immigrants from Asia not much longer than 5000 years ago.

Among Australias birds are the famous and dangerous emu, and gaudy species such as parrots, cockatoos and kookabarras.

Dangerous animals include spiders, snakes and crocodiles.



History

The native people who arrived in Australia across the sea via Indonesia at least 50 000 years ago are called Aboriginals. Australian Aboriginal society has the longest continuous cultural history in the world. They are famous for the boomerang, the didgeridoo, their paintings, their oral tradition (the “songlines”) and their ability to survive in this barren country.

The first European who sailed along the Australians coast in the 17th century was a seafarer from Holland: captain Abel Tasman. But nobody cared to colonize the continent for the next 100 years.

In 1770 the British explorer Captain James Cook stopped at Botany Bay, now part of Sidney. He named this part of the country “New South Wales”. Shortly afterwards the British started to send “criminals” to Australia and started a “penal colony”. On January 26th 1788 the first 736 convicts banished from England to Australia landed at Botany Bay. Over the next 60 years, approximately 50,000 criminals were transported from Great Britain to the "land down under," in one of the strangest episodes in criminal-justice history.

Other settlers mostly from Great Britain arrived in Australia. The first big boom set in in the 1850-s when gold was discovered. From then on immigration started for good.

Australia is a multicultural society. Until World war II Australians were mostly of British and Irish origin, but this has changed dramatically. Large immigration waves from Greece, Italy, the former Yugoslavia, Lebanon and Turkey followed after the war and there have been more and more arrivals from Asia recently.

Sport is the Australian religion. Aussies are leading champions in cricket, rugby, swimming and cycling. Other popular sports are basketball, yachting and soccer.

People

Kylie Minogue is the most popular pop singer from Australia. Actresses Nicole Kidman and Kate Blanchett are from “down under” as well, as is Mel Gibson. Famous Australian authors are J.M. Coetzee, Peter Carey and David Malouf.



Less well-known are its politicians, like Tony Abbott or Julia Gillard.

destination = kierunek/ miejsce przeznaczenia

to comprise/ to consist of (syn) = składać się na

the mainland = kontynent

numerous = liczny

the image = obraz

experience = przeżycie

vast = ogromny/ obszerny

desert = pustynia

the wonder = cud

the coral reef = rafa koralowa

environment = środowisko naturalny

including = w tym

outstanding = rzucający się w oczy/ wybitny

marsupials = torbaczy

mammals = ssaki

a pouch = torba

aquatic = wodny

a poisonous spur = trująca/ jadowita ostroga

gaudy = kolorowy

a spider = pająk

a serpent = wąż

oral = ustny

the ability = zdolność

barren = jałowy

to survive = przeżyć

a seafarer = żeglarz

to care to do sth. = zaimować sie czymś

the explorer = badacz

a penal colony = kolonia karna

to banish = wyslać na banicję

a convict = skazaniec

approximately = około

a settler = osadnik

for good = na dobre

origin = pochodznie

recently = ostatnio

Australia’s Coat of Arms Sidney Opera House





Ayers Rock= Uluru ( fill in the appropriate prepositions!! Or “as”)

.Uluru is located __________/1 central Australia. .The large sandstone rock formation is also known ________/2 Ayers Rock _________/3 honour __________ /4 Sir Henry Ayers, who was a Premier _________/5 South Australia 1873. Uluru is listed ________/ 6 a World Heritage Area _________/6 both its natural and cultural values. It is sacred_________/7 the Aboriginal people __________/8 the area. ____________/9 different times the day, Uluru seems to change colour. The sandstone is infused ______________/ 10 minerals that reflect the red light_________ /11 sunrise and sunset.





platypus dingo male (!!!) with his pups



emu cockatoo



kookaburra Australian king parrots





indigenous inhabitants of Australia



Abel Tasman’s voyages



Abel Tasman Captain James Cook





J.M Coetze Peter Carey David Malouf



Australian sheep dog



Aboriginal with didgeridoo Tony Abbott Julia Gillard






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