Slavic Research Center, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Jul 15, 2011 > 16:30-18:00
The History of the Silesian Language in the Context of the Past of Upper Silesia
Silesia: Political History
9th c - in Greater Moravia
10th c - part of the Bohemian (Czech) state
11th-12th cc – in Poland, made into a pagus (administrative region)
12th-14th cc – time of (semi-)independent Silesian duchies
13th-14th cc – Bohemia gradually took over the Silesian duchies, which means they are included in the Holy Roman Empire
1346 – Crown of Bohemia, the concept of the Czech lands includes Silesia
mid-14th c – Poland formally gives Silesia up to Bohemia
2nd half of the 15th c, Silesia with Moravia controlled by Hungary; the division into Lower & Upper Silesia
1526 – the Czech lands became part of the Habsburg hereditary lands
1740-42 – Vienna loses most of Silesia to Prussia
From the remnant the Crownland of Austrian Silesia formed
Silesia: Early Language Politics
Latin as the language of administration, education and intellectual discourse
12th-13th cc - ‘German’ used in these functions, too, esp in Lower Silesia
16th-early 18th cc – ‘Czech’ (Bohemian) joins in this capacity ‘German’ in Upper Silesia
mid-18th c - German replaces Latin and ‘Czech’ in Prussian Silesia
late 18th c - German replaces Latin and ‘Czech’ in Austrian Silesia
18th-19th cc – standard German emerges, based on the Meissen dialect of Luther’s translation of the Bible, very close to the Germanic dialect of Silesia
In Prussia, Silesia’s German-speakers enjoyed an edge, as in the core of this state, located north of Berlin, Lower German was used (language of the former Hanse), closer to Dutch than standard German
Turn of the 19th c military conscription and popular elementary education took off in earnest in Prussia & the Austrian Empire
By the 1870s illiteracy practically disappeared in all Silesia
Language & Nationalism
language = nation, hence all speakers of a language are a nation
in turn, the land(s) populated by the speakers of this language, is declared the nation’s polity, nation-state
no respect for historical borders in pursuit of such national program
German nationalism and a reaction to it by various groups of non-German speakers led to the eastward and southward spread of the ethnolinguistic model of nationalism
The Ecclesiastical Division of Silesia
A southern section of Prussian Upper Silesia in the Olmütz/Olomouc Archdiocese
Two sections of Austrian Silesia in the Breslau (Wrocław) Diocese
Until 1821 the Breslau Diocese was formally subjected to the (Polish) Gnesen (Gniezno) Archdiocese
Until 1821 the easternmost sliver of Prussian Upper Silesia, centered on Beuthen (Bytom) belonged to the (Polish) Cracow Diocese
These eccentricities had much bearing on people’s identities, due to the fact that the Churches controlled the educational system until the early 1920s, and because national identities defined on the ethnolinguistic basis began to take over other identities quite late, especially in Upper & Austrian Silesia, that is, at the turn of the 20th c
Upper Silesia and Austrian Silesia: The Political and the Linguistic
a Upper Silesia and especially the eastern half of Austrian Silesia peripheral and rural
The development of coal mining and metallurgical industry in both regions threw, unexpectedly, them and their populations into the midst of modernity during the 2nd half of the 19th c
The Upper Silesian industrial basin second largest in continental Europe after the Ruhrgebiete; the East Silesian (Ostrau-Karwin) basin – the largest in Austria-Hungary
The population in the eastern half of Upper Silesia Slavic-speaking, as well as in eastern Austrian Silesia and in the eastern one-third of western Austrian Silesia
Language(s) was of no political or identificational consequence until the mid-19th century; then it changed rapidly
In eastern Austrian Silesia one-third of the population Protestants
In Upper Silesia and elsewhere in Austrian Silesia Catholic
Due to the successful introduction of full popular education, all literate
Irrespective of home language practically everybody had a command of German and was literate in this language
In Prussian Upper Silesia, in order to facilitate this process, between 1849 and 1873 Polish was employed in education for Slavophones in the Breslau Diocese section, whereas the Morawec language in the Olmütz / Olomouc Archdiocese section
Both languages were used in (especially religious) publications until 1918-22, when both regions were divided
In Upper Silesia Polish was language of school and pastoral services, which did not make Slavophones into Poles
Prussian/German statisticians, however, began to dub their areas with Polish as a medium of educationas ‘Polish Upper Silesia,’ later a handy argument for Polish national leaders
In Prussia’s other regions with Slavophone populations, local dialects (languages) were employed in this function, ie, Morawec in southern Upper Silesia, Sorbian in Lusatia (split between Brandenburg and Saxony), Kashubian west of Danzig (Gdańsk, in West Prussia), or Mazurian in southern East Prussia
Statisticians followed suite, which made it more difficult for Polish national activists to claim the two latter areas as ‘Polish’ after 1918
The same difficulty was shared by Czechoslovakia in it claims to Lusatia
In Austrian Silesia education in local Slavic dialects (Morawec/Moravian and Slunzakian) was available in 1849-51
Later German was the sole language of administration and education
With the creation of Austria-Hungary in 1867, Polish (Slunzakian) and Czech (Slavic-Moravec/Moravian) was allowed into education, alongside German
German remained the sole official language of Austrian Silesia, but beginning in the late 19th c, also Czech and Polish were allowed in local governments
As a result, especially educated, people became poly-glossic (rather than multilingual), speaking / writing dialects at home, Polish/Czech in the nearby town, German in Troppau (Opava), Czech in Bohemia, Polish in Galicia, and German/French abroad
Polyglossia survived in Upper Silesia, too, but with almost exclusive literacy in German, while Szlonzokian and Morawec remained idioms of home and neighborhood communication
Who Were Morawecs, Slunzaks and Szlonzoks?
Szlonzoks (‘Silesians’), Slavophone Catholics living in the Breslau Diocese section of Upper Silesia, agriculturalists and increasingly industrial workers
Morawecs (‘Moravians’), Slavophone Catholics living in the Olmütz/Olomouc Archdiocese section of Upper Silesia, agriculturalists
Slunzaks (‘Silesians’), Slavophone Catholics & Protestants living in eastern Austrian Silesia, contained in the Breslau Diocese
The Age of Nationalisms in Upper Silesia and Austrian Silesia
In Austrian Silesia the rise of German nationalism was curbed by a degree of enmity between Austria-Hungary and the German Empire that followed the Six Weeks’ War (1866)
In addition the non-national character of Austria-Hungary allowed for the relatively free operation of Czech and Polish national parties in Austrian Silesia; the competing nationalisms mutually nullified their impact
German nationalism emanated from Vienna and Troppau/Opava, Czech from Olmütz/Olomouc and Polish from Cracow
Confessional identities persisted
Identification with the monarch and Austria continued
Regional identities developed pegged on Austrian Silesia, or either on its western or eastern half
In the situation, the Slunzakian identity developed, and the Moravian identity, morphing with time into Slavo(Czech)-Moravian, influenced Slavophones in western Austrian Silesia
1905 Moravian Ausgleich, German & Slavic(-Moravian) official
1909 Schlesischer Volkspartei / Śląska Partia Ludowa
WW I shook the economic prosperity and stability of the German Empire and Austria-Hungary to their very cores
Allies, taking use of the economic collapse and social chaos in Germany and A-H, supported ethnolinguistic national movements in both states and the western provinces of Russia
Wild card: socialism and the Bolshevik Revolution
Breakup of A-H, territorial curtailment of Germany and Bolshevik Russia
Central Europe divided into ethnolinguistically defined nation-states, but denial of national statehood to Germans, Hungarians, Rusyns (Ruthenians), Szlonzoks, Slunzaks etc
Upper Silesia After WW I
Poland, however reluctantly, competed for Upper Silesia, mostly on the basis of its industrial basin; Warsaw redefined local Slavophones as Poles
1919, 20, 21: (Upper) Silesian Uprisings (rebellions, civil wars), 30% to 50% participants not from Upper Silesia
1920: part of the Olmütz / Olomouc Archdiocese section, with the Morawecs, to Czechoslovakia (Hultschiner Ländchen / the Hlučínsko)
1920-1922: International admin. of the U Silesian Plebiscite Area
Bund der Oberschlesier / Związek Górnoślązaków, supported by Catholic clergy and industrialists want an independent and undivided U Silesia or autonomous within postwar Germany, or in Czechoslovakia (not in Poland), with German & Polish as official languages
1921 Plebiscite, lost by Poland
1922, under France’s pressure, U Silesia divided, with 4/5 of the industrial basin falling to Poland
Austrian Silesia After WW I
Wilsonian principle of national (ie, ethnolinguistic) self-determination denied to Germans in Austria-Hungary
Austria-Germany prohibited from uniting with German and denied its name, the provinces of Bohemian and Moravian-Silesian Germans crushed and brought under Czechoslovak control
Following the breakup of A-H, western Aust Silesia in Czechoslovakia
1918 Polish-Czechoslovak provisional division of eastern Austrian Silesia, followed by war next year
Planned plebiscite prevented by increasing violence
Elites and industrialists, alongside the Schlesischer Volkspartei / Śląska Partia Ludowa wanted an independent (eastern) Austrian Silesia, or its autonomy in Germany or Czechoslovakia (not in Poland), with German & Polish as official languages
France supported Prague, so Czechoslovakia might have its own industrial basin, too
1920 partition of eastern Austrian Silesia, industrial basin to Czechoslovakia
Poland’s Sections of Upper Silesia and Austrian Silesia
Polish sections of Upper & Austrian Silesia organized as the autonomous Silesian Voivodeship; autonomy increasingly a fiction after the 1926 coup
Immediate Polonization of all place-names, less urgently of personal names
In the Austrian Silesian section Polish introduced immediately
The Schlesischer Volkspartei / Śląska Partia Ludowa banned
In the Upper Silesian section 4 years of grace for German until 1926
After 1922, the ZG/BdO waned and disappeared in 1924
Before 1922 Warsaw identified Szlonzokian (Silesian) as the Polish language, later Silesian-speaking civil servants removed from posts unless they acquired ‘proper Polish’
Elite literate in German left for Germany, replaced by Poles, mainly from Galicia
Feliks Steuer (1889-1950), Silesian spelling, scholarly & literary works
Szlonzoks started voting for German parties, sending children to German-medium schools
The Związek Obrony Górnoślązaków (1924-34) founded to prevent discrimination against Szlonzoks
After 1926, tentative acceptance of Silesian, as a Polish dialect, but ‘cleansed of ugly Germanisms and Bohemainisms’
1938 de facto ban on the use of Polish in Germany’s Province of Upper Silesia, and of German in Poland’s Silesian Voivodeship
1938 Warsaw seized Prague’s section of eastern Austrian Silesia (incorporated into the Silesian Voivodeship) and banned Czech
1938/39 end of Czechoslovakia, the border regions of the Czech lands incorporated into Germany (Czech banned), the truncated Czech lands made into a bilingual, German-Czech, Protectorate of Bohemia Moravia, Slovakia gained independence with Slovak as its sole official language, & Subcarpathian Ruthenia, re-incorporated as bilingual, Hungarian-Rusyn, Carpathia into Hungary
Hultschiner Ländchen / the Hlučínsko incorporated into the Province of Upper Silesia
1939 end of Poland, western regions incorporated into Germany (Polish banned), the rest made into a trilingual, German-Polish-Ukrainian, Generalgouvernement
Enlarged Silesian Voivodeship incorporated into the Province of Upper Silesia
Clergy clandestinely tolerated the use of various languages, esp the Morawec Joseph Martin Nathan (1867-1957) of Branitz (Branice)
Poles who settled in the Silesian Voivodeship after 1922 expelled
Ironically, Slunzakian (Silesian, Oberschlesisch) identified as Polish, and thus de facto banned
Pro-Polish Zwischensicht (‘German renegades’): Group 4
Only temporary German citizenship for Group 3, but after 1941, regular citizenship to allow for drafting them into the army
Half of the Polish German forces in the West composed from Group 3 card holders (German deserters), or Szlonzoks, Slunzaks, Mazurs, or Kashubs
The Aftermath of WW II
Interwar German-Czechoslovak border reestablished, Hultschiner Ländchen / the Hlučínsko returned
German territories east of the Oder-Neisse line (less northern east Prussia, seized by the SU) given to Poland
Czechoslovak-Polish conflict over southern German Upper Silesia and the Czech section of eastern Austrian Silesia
1945-1948/50, Germans expelled from Czechoslovakia and Poland, German banned
Prewar Polish & Czechoslovak citizens, holders of the DVL 3, ‘nationally rehabilitated’
Slavophones or persons of ‘Slavic roots’ in the German territories granted to Poland (mainly German Upper Silesia & southern East Prussia) ‘nationally verified’ as Poles
Both, the nationally rehabilitated and the nationally verified, known as Autochthons (autochtoni) in Poland, ie, ‘ethnic Poles unaware of their Polishness’
Polonization, under the slogans of ‘de-Germanization’ and ‘re-Polonization directed at Autochthons
Autochthons retained in Poland, because not enough ethnically Polish ‘repatriates’ (ie expellees from the Polish territories seized by the SU) to repopulate the German territories incorporated into Poland
No replacement for the qualified workforce in the Upper Silesian industrial basin
Similar situation of Slunzaks in the Ostrava-Karviná industrial basin, & of pro-Polish Slunzaks whom Prague wanted to expel to Poland, but was prevented from doing so by Moscow
1958: Polish-Czechoslovak border treaty sanctioned the border between new Polish Upper Silesia and Czech Silesia
Dramatic removal of all traces of German language & culture in Poland and Czechoslovakia, incl. mass destruction of German-language publications
Autochthons in Poland, Hultschiners and Slunzaks in Czechoslovakia, though officially claimed to be ur-Poles & ur-Czechs, de facto treated as crypto-Germans & 2nd class citizens
Their language treated as ‘corrupted’ Polish or Czech, at school they had to be taught ‘correct’ Polish or Czech
The Communist Times
Hundreds of thousands of Autochthons, Hultschiners and Slunzaks faced with everyday humiliation in offices, at school, in public, seized at the opportunity to ‘escape’ to West between 1952 and 1991
In West Germany (as de jure German citizens or descendents of such) they were given German citizenship; and switched to German
Óndra Łysohorsky, during the war, was in the SU, and with Stalin’s support, worked as a member of the All-Slavic Committee, representing eastern Austrian Silesia (Těšínské Slezsko, Śląsk Cieszyński, Teschener Schlesien), or a future Lachian state. In Czechoslovakia it saved him from direct reprecussions, but had to move to Bratislava, and continued writing in German rather than in Lachian. After 1958 the de facto ban on the use of Lachian
In Poland the gradual Polonization of Szlonzokian
In Czechslovakia the gradual Czechization of Slunzakian (Lachian) and of the Hultischiner dialect
Hultschiners began to refer to themselves as ‘Prussians’ (Prajzaci) and their dialect as ‘Prussian language’ (prajzská grófka)
1970-1979 Global Détente
1970-72 Normalization of relationships between West Germany and the Soviet bloc
Intensification of the emigration of Autochthons, Prussians and Slunzaks to West Germany
development of research on the Slavic dialects of Poland’s Upper Silesia and of Czech Silesia, seen as dialects of Polish and Czech, respectively, despite the fact that speakers of the dialects do not have many problems to communicate with one another across the state border, unlike with their ‘co-ethnics’ in Warsaw or Prague
1970: Switzerland nominated Łysohorsky to the Nobel Prize in Literature
1970s-1980s: regional publications with legends, stories, anecdotes & the like in a Polonized version of Szlonzokian and a Czechized version of Slunzakian
Reinhold Olesch (1910-90), Der Wortschatz der polnischen Mundart von Sankt Annaberg (1958), the de facto first Szlonzokian-Polish dictionary
The Postcommunist Times
1989: Fall of communism; 1991: breakup of the SU; 1993: breakup of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic & Slovakia
Democratization and market reforms, pressure among Szlonzoks and Slunzaks to emigrate for (West) Germany lessens, a 1993 change in German citizenship law further discourages emigration
1991: German-Polish Treaty on Cooperation & Good Neighborliness, recognition of the German minority in Poland, overwhelmingly in Upper Silesia
1991 to this day: issuing German citizenship & passports to Germans in Poland, though German and Polish law deems dual citizenship illegal; but Poland wanted to prevent the looming depopulation of Upper Silesia, while Germany had to deal with the sudden influx of ethnic Germans from post-Soviet states & Romania
From the nationally verified Autochthons to a German minority, c 150-300,000 in Upper Silesia; but only those born before 1935 knew some German (as they had managed to attend a few years of German school before 1945)
By 2005, 250,000 German / EU passports issued. It stimulated the arrival of seasonal workers from Upper Silesia to Germany; their command of German improved
1990s: Political and social conflicts of low level connected to the acceptance of the German minority in Poland
So far no German-medium minority educational system has been created, and the about 500 German minority schools in Poland, are schools where German is taught as ‘mother tongue,’ ie, 3 hours per week
Similar situation of the Czech Rep’s German minority, concentrated in the Hlučínsko
The Czechoslovak census of 1991 recorded 44,000 Silesians (Slunzaks and Prussians), but a decade later their number fell to 11,000
The Polish census of 2002 recorded 170,000 Silesians (Szlonzoks), making them into Poland’s largest national minority, with Germans as the second one with 150,000 declarations. Both the minorities concentrate in Upper Silesia, making it into Poland’s most multicultural region. But so far Warsaw has not recognized the existence of the Silesians or their Silesian language
Silesian movement: 1990 - Ruch Autonomii Śląska (Silesian Autonomy Movement), 1996 - Związek Ludności Narodowości Śląskiej (Union of the People of Silesian Nationality)
Silesian, Prussian and Lachian in Today’s Upper Silesia and Czech Silesia
The Emergence of Silesian as a Language in Its Own Right
a 2000: Bartylla-Blanke, Alfred. 2000. Ród. Przyczynek w sprawie śląskiej [The Family: On the Silesian Question], first play consciously written in Silesian
2003: Narodowa Oficyna Śląska
- Dariusz Jerczyński. 2003. Historia narodu śląskiego [History of the Silesian Nation]
2006: Czajkowski, Andrzej; Schröder, Lidia and Schröder, Sandra. Wielki słownik śląsko-niemiecko-angielski [The Great Silesian-German-English Dictionary]
2007: International recognition of the Silesian language (ISO639-3 code szl)
2008: Organizations for the cultivation of Silesian > Pro Loquela Silesiana and the Tôwarzistwo Piastowaniô Ślónskij Môwy "Danga“
2008: Silesian Wikipedia > Ślůnsko Wikipedyjo
2008: First Standardization Conference of Silesian, Katowice
2008: Kadłubek, Zbigniew. 2008. Listy z Rzymu [Letters from Rome], the first volume of literary essays in Silesian
2009: Standard orthography adopted for Silesian
2009: Second standardization conference of Silesian
2009: Lysohorsky [sic], Óndra (Erwin Goj). 2009. Spiwajuco piaść [The Singing Fist] – the first-ever book published in standard orthography
in this manner Lachian claimed as part of common Silesian
2010: Adamus, Rafał et al. Gōrnoślōnski ślabikŏrz [Upper Silesian Primer for Schools]; and Grynicz, Barbara and Roczniok, Andrzej. Ślabikorz ABC [Primer ABC for Schools]
Efforts to gain recognition as a regional language in Poland have continued since 2007
21st c saw the unprecedented spread of the use of Silesian in the internet, radio and television (Telewizja Silesia, est in 2008)
Silesian is many things to various people:
- dialect of Polish for pro-Polish Szlonzoks & Szlonzokian Poles
- dialect of German for Szlonzokian Germans & pro-German Szlonzoks
- Silesian language for Szlonzoks
Hence, some Upper Silesian towns and villages, though linguistically homogenously, on the sociolinguistic plane are even tri-lingual.
Slunzakian, Prussian and Lachian in Czech Silesia
a In the Czech Republic Moravian-Silesian parties were active in the first half of the 1990s
Dialects and language varieties are better respected in the Czech Rep than in Poland and the level of living is higher and more equal, hence, thus far language has not become there an instrument of political-cum-cultural mobilization
In Ostrava and the vicinity some dictionaries of Slunzakian (seen as a dialect of Czech) are published, eg, Janeček, Pavel. 2005. Ostravsko-český slovník, zejména pro Čech obyvatele, nejvíce pak pro Města hlavního obyvatele, ku pochopení lepšímu dělného lidu prostého [An Ostrava Dialect-Czech Dictionary, Intended for Czech Citizens, but Especially for the Inhabitants of the Capital, so that They Could Better Understand the Simple Working Folk]
In the Hlučínsko a low-key Prussian regionalist-cum-linguistic movement developed with popular, though low circulation, publications in Prussian, eg, Rumanová, Lidie. 2005. Chcu byč enem Prajz. Lidové básně [I Want to Remain a Prussian: Folk Poems]
Also a revival of interest in Łysohorsky’s Lachian oeuvre
Ślůnsko Wikipedyjo - yncyklopedyjo internecowo ze familije Wikipedyje, kero je tworzůno we ślůnskij godce.
Pjyrszy wńosek uo uruchůmjyńy uosobnygo projektu lo ślůnskij godki złożůno na Wikimedia-Meta we marcu 2006 roku. Uostoł włůnczas uodćepńynty, głůwńy skiż braku kodu ISO 639-3 lo godki. Po uotrzimańu uod ślůnskij godki kodu ISO szl nazod dano forszlag zrobjyńo Ślůnskij Wikipedyje. Tům razům głosůw na uodpora ańi tyż przeszkůd formalnych ńy bůło. Ślůnsko godka uzyskoła status "eligible", tzn. uostoła uznano za uodpedńo do stworzyńo we ńi uodrymbnygo projektu. Jako nastympstwo takigo postanowjyńo, napoczyno robota nad tumaczyńym interfejsu MediaWiki na ślůnsko godka, a 31 marca2008 utworzůno testowo wersyjo Wikipedyje we Inkubatorze. Tumaczyńy interfejsa MediaWiki ukůńczůno 26 kwjetńa 2008. Kolejnym warůnkym akceptacyje projektu godkowygo, bůło utworzyńy projektu we Inkubatorze a utrzimańy jego aktywnośći. To zadańy uostoło na uostatku powożůne za wykůnane 3 maja2008. Ńyskorzi Kůmitet Godkowy Fůndacyje Wikimedyjo zwrůćůł śe do godkoznowcy (bůł ńim dr. Tomasz Kamusella) coby tyn uorachowoł, eli zawartość ślůnskij Wikipedyje je poprawno pod wzglyndym godkowym i merytorycznym, a tyż eli je zgodno ze prawidłym nyjutralnygo půnkta wezdrzyńo. Po uzyskańu pozytywnyj nůmery godkoznowcy, projekt uostoł zaakceptowany 23 maja2008. Na kůńec, domyna szl.wikipedia.org uruchomjůno 26 maja2008. Podug stanu na 14 lipca2009, mjała uůna 1430 artiklůw, 2356 używaczůw a 3 admińistratorůw.
Ślůnsko Wikipedyjo je spůmńano we uzasadńyńu do projekta ustawy uo regijonalnych godkach, kero we polskim Sejmje złożůł posoł Marek Plura.
↑Neczajta s podsůmowańym zgłoszyńo
↑kod ISO 639-3 szl
↑Weryfikacyjo na Meta
↑Zajta wńosku, sprowjyńy ze wpisym uo akceptacyje
↑Projekt ustawy wprowadzającej śląski jako język regionalny - w Sejmie
Tekst je udostympńany na licencyji Creative Commons: uznańy autorstwa, na jednakich warůnkach, ze możebnośćům uobowjůnzywańo ekstra uograńiczyńůw. Uobejzdrzij blank dokładne informacyje uo warůnkach korzystańo.
a1 In Silesian in Steuer Orthography
Uojcze nasz, kery jeżeś we ńebje,
bydź pośwjyncůne mjano Twoje.
Przińdź krůlestwo Twoje,
bydź wola Twoja,
jako we ńebje, tak tyż na źymji.
Chlyb nasz kożdodźynny dej nům dźiśej.
A uodpuść nům nasze winy,
jako a my uodpuszczůmy naszym wińńikům.
A ńy wůdź nos na pokuszyńy,
nale zbow nos uode złygo.
Ojcze nasz, kjery jeżeś w niebje,
bóndź pośwjyncone mjano Twoji.
Przyńdź królevstwo Twoje,
bóndź wola Twoja,
jak w niebje, tak też na źymji.
Chłyb nasz każdodźienny daj nóm dźiśej.
A odpuść nóm nasze winy,
jak my odpuszczómy naszym winńikum.
A nie wodź nas na pokuszeni,
ale zbow nas od złego.
a3 Polish counterpart
Ojcze nasz, któryś jest w niebie,
święć się imię Twoje,
przyjdź królestwo Twoje,
bądź wola Twoja
jako w niebie tak i na ziemi.
Chleba naszego powszedniego daj nam dzisiaj.
I odpuść nam nasze winy,
jako i my odpuszczamy naszym winowajcom.
I nie wódź nas na pokuszenie,
ale zbaw nas ode złego.
a4 Czech counterpart
Otče náš, jenž jsi na nebesích,
posvěť se jméno Tvé
Přijď království Tvé.
Buď vůle Tvá,
jako v nebi, tak i na zemi.
Chléb náš vezdejší dej nám dnes
A odpusť nám naše viny,
jako i my odpouštíme naším viníkům
a neuveď nás v pokušení,
ale zbav nás od zlého.
b1 In Silesian in Standard Orthography
Ślōnzoki pomiyszkujōm na Wiyrchnym Ślōnsku, kery terozki je we Polsce, i tyż na ōstyn tajli Pepickigo Ślōnska, kero roztopiyrzo sie pojstrzōd Ostravōm a Těšínym. Ze geszichtowego blikniyńcio, ôd pojstrzedniowieczo ku ôstatka II weltowyj wojny, bōł to plac, kaj doimyntowały sie dijalekty słowianowe a germanowe. We efekcie powstowanio landōw nacyjowogodkowych we Pojstrzodkowyj Europie po 1918 roku, plac tyn roztajlowany ôstoł pojstrzōd Czechosłowacyjo, Niymce a Polska. Te tajlowanie uznali Alianty i niy powożali majnunga samych Ślōnzoków. Nojwiyncy Ślōnzokōm zdało sie coby Wiyrchny Ślōnsk ôroz ōstyn poły Pepikowego Ślōnska (wtynczos jeszcze mianowany Ślōnsk Esterajchowy) zrychtować za samostanowiōny land (nacyjowy) Ślōnzoków, abo dociepnōńć za autōnōmijowy rigijōn ku Niymcōm abo ku Czechosłowacyje
b2 Polish Translation
Ślązacy mieszkają na Górnym Śląsku, obecnie w Polsce, a także we wschodniej połowie Czeskiego Śląska, która się rozciąga między Ostravą a Těšínem. Z historycznego punktu widzenia, od średniowiecza po koniec II wojny światowej był to obszar przenikania się dialektów słowiańskich i germańskich. W wyniku postwania etnicznojęzykowych państw narodowych w Europie Środkowej po roku 1918, obszar ten został rozdzielony między Czechosłowację, Niemcy i Polskę. O tym rozbiorze zadecydowali Alianci, nie biorąc pod uwagę woli samych Ślązaków. Większość Ślązaków zda się chciała aby z Górnego Śląska oraz wschodniej połowy Czeskiego Śląska (wtedy jeszcze zwanego Śląskiem Austriackim) uwtorzyć niepodległe państwa (narodowe) Ślązaków, lub włączyć je jako regiony autonomiczne do Niemiec lub Czechosłowacji.
Baborowscy rzymejśńicy chodźyli pyrwaj ze swojim tauwarym po jermakach. Z dumu wychodźili na weczur abo wczas rano. Nejwjeci ich szło paura narauz. W jedyn pautek rano zajś se wybjyrali na cestu. S poczautku byli yny trze. I szli ku Sulkowu. Jak przyszli na most, śedźeł tam chłopek jak małe dźećo w czerwynim ancugu a ńe chćeł ich przepujśćić. W ruce dyrżeł hułu. Ći trze rzymejśńicy wystraszyli se a wraućyli nazaud. Po cejśće potkali druhich. Tim prawjyli, iże wasyrmun śedźi na mojśće a straszi. Ći se tejż źlekli a chćeli iść inszum cestum. W tim przyszli trzeći. Ći rzekli: "My ńe pujdźime kadyińdźi. Naus tu jest tela ludźi, to se wasyrmuna ńe źlekńime". Teraz szli wszycy rzymejśńicy wrauz ku mostu. Wasyrmun tam jeszcze śedźeł. A jak ku ńimu przyszli, dobrze opakowańi, skoczył un z mosta do wody i wszyckich oszpluchtoł.
Silesian: Between German and Polish
As presented below, I have cobbled the exemplification of Upper Silesia’s post-creole continuum from a range of German- and Polish-language publications, usually from folkloristic and published literary sources. Hence, Germanic and Slavic elements in these quotations are recorded with the use of either German or Polish orthography. I have marked the Germanic elements in bold and the Slavic in italics. Syntactical, lexical, orthographic or inflectional overlapping of Germanic and Slavic elements is marked in bold italics. (Kamusella 1998: 155-156)
(1) Standard German.
(2a) Über Dächer über Häuser, wie der Kater zu die Mäuser, also schleicht sichAntekhin zu dem Bett von Schwägerin. Bruderlibe. (Reiter 1989: 117)
‘Over the houses’ rooftops, as a cat chasing mice, Antek sneaks into the bed of his sister-in-law. Brotherly love.’
Comment: The word order is Slavic (Polish), since the verb schleicht ‘sneaks’ does not come at the sentence’s end as it should in German, and no article precedes the noun Schwägerin ‘sister-in-law,’ which is typical in Slavic, but not in German/ic. However the words and morphology are German, with the exception of Antek which is a diminutive derived from the Slavic (Polish) personal name Antoni (‘Anthony’). Also note the non-standard plural Mäuser ‘mice’ (it is Mäuse in standard German), typical of the Germanic dialect of Upper Silesia.
(2b) DuHacherverfluchter, pieronnischerBux. (Kaluza 1992: 198)
‘You, accursed rascal, damn brat.’
Comment: Hachar or hachor and bux or buks are Silesian for ‘brat, rascal, rogue, scoundrel’ and so forth. Pieronnischer is derived from the Silesian profane adjective pieroński ‘damn, bloody,’ which comes from the popular expletive pierona! (literally ‘let it/you be struck by a lightening’) in the function of the English generalized expletive ‘fuck.’ Hachar rendered here as Hacher and pieroński as pieronnischer take German suffixes, and Hacher begins in the capital letter, which is normal for German nouns in writing, but not for Slavic ones. Bux seems to be a Silesian word of Germanic origin, here written as a German noun with the initial capital letter, and with the use of the letter x that in Slavic is usually rendered as ks.
(3a) Marykaübern Reifen springt, was diepajacyhammitgebringt. (Reiter 1989: 117)
‘Mary jumps over the hoop, which the urchins have brought along.’
Comment: Maryka, or more usually Marika, is a Silesian and German diminutive derived from the name Maria (‘Mary’). Pajacy is the plural of the Silesian and Polish word pajac ‘clown.’ The auxiliary verb ham is of the Upper Silesian Germanic dialect, and corresponds to the standard German haben (‘have’).
(3b) Sollt ichkapitulirowatsch? [...] Tatulekhat Krieg gemachen. (Kaluza 1992: 203-204)
‘Should I surrender? […] Dad went to war.’
Comment: The German verb kapitulieren here takes the suffix of the Slavic infinitive –ować, rendered phonetically in German spelling (-owatsch), from the Silesian verb kapitulowoć, which corresponds to Polish kapitulować. Tatulek is a diminutive for tata (or tato) ‘dad.’ Sollt is an Upper Silesian Germanic dialectal form of the auxiliary verb that is written as soll with the first person singular in standard German.
(4a) Mach demkanarekmal dieklotkaauf, da kann er sich rein undraushopsać. (Reiter 1989: 117)
‘Let the canary out of its cage, so it could clean itself and hop in [its cage] and out [of it again].’
Comment: Klotka is Silesian for ‘cage,’ rendered as klatka in standard Polish. Sich rein ‘clean oneself,’ typical of Upper Silesia’s Germanic dialect, is a calque of Silesian ŏczyścić siei (or łoczyścić sie in Polish spelling). The verb raushopsać is composed of German raus ‘out’ and Silesian hopsać ‘to hop.’ In turn hopsać stems from the noun and expletive hop ‘to jump,’ and/or German/ic hopsen for ‘to hop.’ Because Germanic syntax allows for the easy production of composite verbs from two or three elements, this possibility has been amply utilized in the Upper Silesian creole and Silesian to meld together Germanic and Slavic elements.
(4b) DieMamulkadenkt sichw doma, was sich macht Soldaten, denkt sich, żre kapusta, kloski, trinkt sich Wein [...]. Hab geschrieben Mutter gestern, hab kanon puzowatsch, ispsiakrewkaput gegangen, mußgobezahlowatsch. [...] Sabioł szabląganz alleine tausendzwölf turkusen. (Kaluza 1992: 204)
‘Mom thinks at home what soldiers [may] do [in their barracks], she thinks, eats cabbage, dumplings, [and] drinks wine […]. I wrote to my mother yesterday [that] I cleaned the cannon, [but] damn it, it went down, and [now] I must pay for [it]. […] With a sword he alone killed 1012 Turks.’
Comment: Mamulka is Silesian for ‘mummy’ and corresponds to Polish mamusia, both forms derived from Slavic mama ‘mum.’ W doma (‘at home’) is a combination of standard Polish w domu and its Silesian counterpart doma. Kloski is the plural of Silesian kloska (or more appropriately, klouska in Polish spelling, and klōska in standard Silesian spelling) ‘dumpling,’ derived from Germanic klöse, which is rendered as kluska in Polish. In puzowatsch ‘to clean’ and bezahlowatsch ‘to pay [for]’ the Slavic infinitive suffix –ować is phonetically rendered in German spelling as –owatsch. The Silesian verb pucowoć and its Polish counterpart pucować come from the German one of putzen. In sabioł ‘[he] killed’ the initial consonant is rendered phonetically in German spelling, but in Slavic it is the grapheme z that denotes the desired consonant, so the word is zabioł in Silesian, or zabił in Polish. The German/ic elements of the sentence’s syntax are modeled on Slavic grammar, including the use of the reflexive pronoun.
(5a) Alexanderscho na wander, kupiou buty za trzy knuty. (Reiter 1989: 118)
‘Alexander went for a walk, [and] bought shoes [in exchange] for three whips.’
Comment: In the phrase na wander ‘for a walk,’ Slavic syntax and a Slavic particle are combined with the German/ic word, which is typical of the Upper Silesian creole and the Silesian language. The Silesian verb scho ‘went’ for the male third person singular is rendered phonetically in German spelling, and could be written in Polish spelling as either szoł or szou. The latter possibility is actually employed in kupiou (or kupioł) ‘bought.’ In standard Silesian spelling, the verbs are written as szŏ and kupiŏ, and correspond to the Polish verbs poszedł and kupił.
(5b) [...] Szlajfyrzemieli tałośka zbruskamizamontowano nalinksztandzeprzi kole. (Łosprawki 1995: 10)
‘The [knife] sharpeners had their little axis with whetstones [attached to it] fitted onto the bicycle’s handlebar.’
Comment: The singular of Silesian szlajfyrze is szlajfyrz for ‘cutter, grinder, polisher;’ originally from German/ic Schleifer and schleifen ‘to polish, to grind,’ which also correspond to the Polish pair szlifiarz and szlifować. The Silesian verb for ‘to polish’ is closer to the German original as szlajfowoć. Łośka, today written in standard Silesian spelling as ôśka is a diminutive derived from ôś ‘axis.’ The diminutive and the noun correspond to Polish ośka and oś. Silesian bruska or bruśka ‘whetstone’ stems from the Slavic verb brusić ‘to mill, grind.’ Silesian koło ‘bicycle’ (literally ‘wheel’) is a calque of German Fahrrad (frequently shortened to Rad ‘wheel’), while in Polish ‘bicycle’ is rower (though in non-standard varieties of the Polish language kołooccurs in this meaning, too.) Silesian linksztanga ‘handlebar’ comes from German Linkstange ‘rod linking [elements of a mechanism or device].’ Silesian przi ‘at’ corresponds to Polish przy.
(6a) Maryko ty stara kryko, ty mos tyn pysk jak starywertiko. (Reiter 1989: 118)
‘Mary, you old hag [literally ‘walking stick’], you have a face as [big and flat as] a sideboard.’
Comment: The case of the name Maryka is explicated above in (3a). The suffix –ko is of the Slavic vocative case here. Kryka is Silesian for ‘walking stick’ or metaphorically for ‘old, ugly woman.’ The Silesian verb mos ‘to have,’ here in second person singular, reflects a limited eastern Upper Silesian pronunciation, typical of the industrial basin, but the usual form is mosz,ii which corresponds to Polish masz. From the vantage of Slavic syntax there is no need for the demonstrative tyn ‘this’ in the phrase mos tyn pysk, and it would be more usual for it to read mos pysk. Here, the demonstrative tyn reflects the use of the definite article in German. In this way the use of the Germanic definite article has become a distinctive syntactical feature of the Upper Silesian creole and the Silesian language. Silesian tyn corresponds to Polish ten. Wertiko is Silesian for ‘sideboard for underwear and bedclothes,’ but also occurs in Polish specialized jargon pertaining to furniture.
(6b) A potymgeburstagmoł jego babaibajtel. (Krystofek 1997: 5)
‘And then his wife and their kid had their birthdays.’
Comment: Silesian potym ‘then’ corresponds to Polish potem. German Geburstag for ‘birthday’ is the same in Silesian, while Polish for this meaning employs urodziny. Baba is Slavic usually for ‘old woman,’ but in Silesian it simply means ‘woman.’ The phrase jego baba literally ‘his woman,’ meaning ‘wife,’ is a calque from the German expression ihre Frau for ‘wife.’ Bajtel is Silesian of Germanic origin for ‘kid, small child.’ Silesian moł (or mioł) ‘had,’ or mō (miō) in standard spelling, corresponds to Polish miał. In the phrase moł jego babaibajtel the male form of the verb is in agreement with the male gender of the noun bajtel, which is unusual in Slavic, for such an agreement is typically marked between the verb and the noun that directly borders on the verb. And baba is obviously of female gender, entailing that the verb should take its female form, namely, moła (mioła) or mōa (miōa).
(7a) Za komuny szło nejwyżi pozaglondać na fajerwerki w telewizorze. (Krystofek 1997: 5)
‘Under communism, one could [have some fun] only by watching fireworks on television [on New Year’s Eve].’
Comment: the sentence is in heavily Polonized Silesian. The only concessions to Silesian are the adjective nejwyżi and the verb pozaglondać that correspond to Polish najwyżej and pooglądać, respectively. However, a genuine Silesian-speaker would pronounce the verb as pozaglondoć rather than pozaglondać, which sounds more Polish than Silesian. Silesian shares szło (literally ‘it went so’ meaning ‘one could’) with colloquial Polish, and fajerwerki is a loanword from German (Fuerwerke) that was adopted in many languages across Central Europe.
(7b) [...] Dziołcha była piykno - no wiycie: krew a mleko, jak to padajom. (Strzałka 1976: 57)
‘The girl was beautiful, you know, [as they say, beautiful and fresh] as blood and milk.’
Comment: Silesian dziołcha (dziōcha in standard spelling) ‘girl’ corresponds to Polish dziewczyna, Silesian wiycie ‘you know’ to Polish wiecie, and Silesian padajom ‘they say’ to Polish mówią.
(8) Standard Polish.