What according to Hobsbawm is the difference between: a state, a nation, an imagined community?
Why would an ethnically and linguistically homogenous state be a surprise to the founders of the original nation-states?
What does Hobsbawm mean when he insists we are ‘multi-dimensional beings’?
The ideal of a nation as an imagined community is represented by an ethnically, culturally and linguistically homogenous population. Is it actually true for the majority of states in the world? What are the historical examples mentioned by Hobsbawm?
“So long as people lived in an oral universe there was no necessary link between the spoken and written language of the literate minority.(...) A single national language only became important when ordinary citizens became an important component of the state.”. What is the role of literacy (and universal education) for a modern state?
One language for each state is a common belief. According to Hobsbawm Poland is predominantly Polish. How did actually happen? Why is it impossible for any state to remain homogenous these days?
Afro-Americans’ claim to have their variety taught at schools is an example of a community aiming at establishing their status in the society. What does Hobsbawm mean when he says that if you turn a language into a school language it ceases to be the language that kids speak?
Hobsbawm gives three main reasons why nationalism in the old 19 and 20 c. style is ‘becoming out of date’? Explain the consequences of each of the trends.
What does Hobsbawm mean when he says: ‘What we have today are not interchangeable, but complementary languages’?
Do you agree:
It would be realistic to give all university education in certain subjects in English today.
Poetry encourages both incommunicability and linguistic nationalism.
Language revival (e.g. Cornish, Irish) has nothing to do with culture but is merely a political move.
So long as language is not firmly separated form the state as religion was in the US (...), it will be a constant and generally artificial source of civil strife.
upowszechnianiu szacunku dla regionalizmów i gwar, a także przeciwdziałaniu ich zanikowi,
promocji języka polskiego w świecie,
wspieraniu nauczania języka polskiego w kraju i za granicą.
Do ochrony języka polskiego są obowiązane wszystkie organy władzy publicznej oraz instytucje i organizacje uczestniczące w życiu publicznym.
Minister właściwy do spraw oświaty i wychowania określa, w drodze rozporządzenia, zasady prowadzenia egzaminów państwowych z języka polskiego dla cudzoziemców ubiegających się o urzędowe poświadczenie jego znajomości.
Człowiek zdobywa wiedzę przede wszystkim poprzez język. Nauczanie języka ojczystego tworzy fundament ogólnego rozwoju ucznia, jest pomocą w kształtowaniu osoby ucznia, stanowi główny punkt odniesienia całej edukacji szkolnej - wychowania i kształcenia. Za rozwój języka w mowie i piśmie (w tym za zasób pojęć, ortografię i estetykę zapisu) odpowiedzialni są wszyscy nauczyciele niezależnie od posiadanej specjalności.
Linguistic Diversity – Policies
While the European Union is committed to integration at European level, it promotes the linguistic and cultural diversity of its peoples. It does so by promoting the teaching and learning of their languages, thereby building bridges to greater solidarity and mutual understanding.
The European Union’s policies for linguistic diversity are designed to create an environment that is propitious to the full expression of all languages and in which the teaching and learning of a variety of languages flourishes. The European Union’s ambitious goal is that as many of its citizens as possible should speak two languages in addition to their mother tongue.
While recognising the emergence of English as the most widely-spoken language in Europe, the European Union also wants to make sure that this does not become, over time, a factor which reduces linguistic diversity within its frontiers. This is why the Commission has set a target of “Mother tongue-plus-two” for its policy on language skills. According to the most recent figures around 26% of Europeans claim to know their own language and two others. The challenge for the EU is to expand this base solidly and effectively, in as short a time as possible.