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IP

23



Agenda Item:

CEP 10a




Presented by:

United Kingdom




Original:

English




Submitted:

21/03/2014








Colonisation status of known non-native species in the Antarctic terrestrial environment (updated 2014)

  1. Colonisation status of known non-native species in the Antarctic terrestrial environment (updated 2014)

Information Paper submitted by the United Kingdom

  1. At CEP XIII, XIV, XV and XVI Information Papers were submitted detailing the colonisation status of known non-native species in the Antarctic terrestrial environment (ATCM XXXIII IP42; ATCM XXXIV IP50; ATCM XXXV IP29; ATCM XXXVI IP28). An update on earlier information is provided in this Information Paper.

  2. As far as we are aware, in the last year there have been no new reports of non-native species becoming established within Antarctica; however, there has been further development in our understanding of the colonisation potential and biology of some of the non-native species described previously.

  3. Information relating to these developments has been added to the information presented in previous years and is shown in Table 1 (in bold).

Table 1. Colonisation status of known non-native species in the Antarctic terrestrial environment




Species


Location

Date introduced

Colonisation status

Area colonised

Notes

References

Invertebrates




















Eretmoptera murphyi

(chironomid midge)



Signy Research Station, South Orkney Islands, Scotia arc

1967, 1968 (?)

Expanding

~35,000 m2


Present in high numbers (mean 21,000 larvae m-2) within an area of c. 35,000 m2. Favoured habitat is dead moss and peat. Colonisation of habitats on the western Peninsula may be possible as far south as 67oS.

Hughes and Worland (2010);

Everatt et al. (2012)

Hughes et al. (2013)



Christensenidrilus blocki

(enchytraeid worm)



Signy Research Station, South Orkney Islands,

Scotia arc



1967, 1968 (?)

Persistent

< 150 m2

Present in low numbers around the original introduction site.

Hughes and Worland (2010)

Trichocera maculipennis

(fly)


Artigas Antarctic Scientific Base, Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands

2006 (?)

Persistent

Found up to 4 km from Artigas Station

Found in the base sewage system and in the terrestrial environment around Maxwell Bay. Initial eradication attempt in sewage system was unsuccessful. Life history and physiological characteristics may make colonisation of maritime Antarctica possible.

ATCMXXXI IP33;

Volonterio et al. (2013)



Hypogastrura

viatica

(springtail)



Léonie Island, Marguerite Bay, Antarctic Peninsula

?

?

?

Only record is original collection. Subsequent collections have not contained this species

Greenslade (1995)


Hypogastrura

viatica

(springtail)



Tower Island, Palmer Archipelago, Antarctic Peninsula

?

?

?

Found associated with a sheathbill nest in Feb 1966

Wise (1971)

Hypogastrura

viatica

(springtail)



Half Moon Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula

?

?

?

Regular visitor site. ATCM Site Guidelines have been adopted for Half Moon Island. The Argentine Antarctic summer station Cámara is located on the Island.

M. Potapov

(unpublished data; quoted in Greenslade et al. (2012))



Hypogastrura

viatica

(springtail)



Neko Harbour, Graham Land, Antarctic Peninsula

?

?

?

Regular visitor site. ATCM Site Guidelines have been adopted for Neko Harbour. Site of a former Argentine refuge hut.

M. Potapov (unpublished data; quoted in Greenslade et al. (2012))

Hypogastrura

viatica

(springtail)



Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula

?

Persistent (Invasive?)

Abundant at several sites around the caldera including ASPA 140 sub-sites A and C

Now abundant. One of the most invasive Collembola found in the sub-Antarctic islands

Hack (1949)

Greenslade et al. (2012); Greenslade & Convey (2012)



Folsomia candida

(springtail)



Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula

?

?

?

Not found in subsequent surveys

Greenslade & Wise (1984); Greenslade et al. (2012)

Protaphorura fimata

(springtail)



Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula

?

?

?

Not found in subsequent surveys

Greenslade & Wise (1984); Greenslade et al. (2012)

Deuteraphorura cebennaria

(springtail)



Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula

?

?

Found in Pendulum Cove (not within ASPA 140 sub-site G)

Regular visitor site. ATCM Site Guidelines have been adopted for Pendulum Cove. The remains of the Chilean Presidente Pedro Aguirre Cerda Station (HSM No. 76) are located here.

Greenslade et al. (2012)

Mesaphorura macrochaeta

(springtail)



Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula

?

?

Found in parts of Whalers Bay

Regular visitor site. ATCM Site Guidelines have been adopted for Whalers Bay. The remains of the Whaling Station, cemetery and British ‘Base B’ (HSM No. 71) are located here.

Greenslade et al. (2012)

Proisotoma minuta

(springtail)



Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctic Peninsula

?

?

Found in Whalers Bay and ASPA 140 sub-site C

The total number of Collembola species now known from Deception Island is 14, comprising eight native species and six non-native species. Biosecurity guidelines are found in ASMA 4 Deception Island Management Plan.

Greenslade et al. (2012)

Boreas sp. (Mecoptera)

Snow scorpion fly



ASPA 134 Cierva Point, Palmer Archipelago, Antarctic Peninsula

?

?

Within ASPA 134 Cierva Point and offshore islands, Danco Coast, Antarctic Peninsula

The single specimen was extracted from lichen communities at c. 100 m a.s.l. Genus common in boreal regions, including the Arctic

Convey and Quintana (1997)

Plants




















Poa annua

(grass)


Arctowski Station and within ASPA 128 Western Shore of Admiralty Bay King George Island, South Shetland Islands

1985/86

Multiple introduction may have occurred



Expanding

Grass has spread over 500 m from Arctowski into the vicinity of the nearby ASPA 128 Western Shore of Admiralty Bay, and 1.5 km to the deglaciated foreground of Ecology Glacier (c. 70 individuals in an area of ~100 m2)

1985/86: first found in metal grating at Arctowski Station main building

1990: spread to greenhouse area and above subterranean hot water pipes within a single area of c. 0.4 km2 1991/92: found in a number of locations with disturbed ground 2005/6: found growing amongst indigenous plant communities for the first time.

2008/9: found on a glacier forefield, 1.5 km from the station


Olech (1996); Smith (1996); Olech (2003); Frenot et al. (2005); Chwedorzewska (2008);

Olech and Chwedorzewska (2011); Chwedorzewska and Bednarek (2012)



Poa annua

(grass)


General Bernardo O’Higgins station, Trinity Peninsula, northern Antarctic Peninsula

Pre 2007/8

Eradicated

2007/08: single plant

2009/10: two plants



Plants eradicated after

the 2009–2010 summer growing season.



Molina-Montenegro et al. (2012)

Poa annua

(grass)


Gabriel González Videla station, Paradise Bay, northern Antarctic Peninsula

Pre 2007/8

Eradicated

2007/08: single plant

2009/10: four plants



Plants eradicated after

the 2009–2010 summer growing season.



Molina-Montenegro et al. (2012)

Poa annua

(grass)


Almirante Brown station, Paradise Bay, northern Antarctic Peninsula

Pre 2009/10

Persistent?

Two plants

?

Molina-Montenegro et al. (2012)

Poa pratensis

(grass)


Primavera Station, Cierva Point, Palmer Archipelago, Antarctic Peninsula

1954/55

Persistent

The grass remains restricted to the original introduction site. Since 1995 it has expanded from a patch c. 40 cm across to c. 1 m across (Jan 2012).

Introduced in soil imported from Ushuaia (Terra del Fuego) during transplantation experiments of Nothofagus antarctica and Northofagus pumilo.

Corte (1961)

Smith (1996)

ATCM XXXV IP13

Pertierra et al. (2013)


Poa trivialis

Reclassified as Puccinellia sp.

(grass)


Syowa Station, Enderby Land, East Antarctica

1993 (?)

Eradicated

Single plant

Removed in 2007 (S. Imura, pers. comm.)

ATCM XX IP 66

Tsujimoto et al. (2010)



Nassauvia magellanica

(flowering plant in the aster family)



Whalers Bay, Deception Island, Antarctic Peninsula

Pre Jan 2009

Eradicated

Single plant

N. magellanica removed by UK scientists in Jan 2010. Four plants were found originally, but three had been washed away, along with another non-native species Gamochaeta nivalis, by the time of the eradication.

Smith and Richardson (2010)

ATCM XXXIII IP43



Alopecurus geniculatus, Puccinellia distans, Rumex pulcher, Stellaria media and

Chenopodium rubrumwere

Progress II Station, Larsemann Hills, East Antarctica

Found in 1995

Eradicated

c. 1.5 m2 (?)

Seventeen individual vascular plants up to 20 cm in diameter found near the staircase of the medical block. Some plants were flowering and producing seed. Dead plants with seed were also found at the site.

ATCM XIX WP29

ATCM XXIII IP 79



Cerastium fontanum

Great Wall Station, Fildes Peninsula, King George Island

1997 (?)

2005 (?)







Smith (2003)

Unidentified Poaceae

Great Wall and

Bellingshausen Stations, Fildes Peninsula, King George Island



Pre-2006

Eradication attempts: 10 Feb 2006 and Dec 2008


Feb 2006: Several individual plants established in the grounds of the stations.

Dec 2008: Single grass plant near Bellingshausen Station



Uncertainty over precise identity of species. Poa annua possible. In 2006, plants had already flowered and seeds could therefore be present in the soil.

Peter et al. (2008; 2013)

Juncus bufonius

(rush)


Within ASPA 128 Western Shore of Admiralty Bay

Pre Dec 2009

Evidence of earlier establishment, current colonisation status not known.

?

Plants not found, but propagules germinated from Antarctic soil. Pollen found in soil suggests that mature plants may have existed at site. Not known if J. bufonius was introduced by human or natural transport mechanisms.

Cuba-Diaz et al. (2012)













































References


ATCM XIX WP29. Conservation of Antarctic flora and fauna.

ATCM XX IP66. A grass (seed plant) found in Syowa Station area, East Antarctica.

ATCM XXIII IP79. Initial Environmental Evaluation: compacted snow runway at the Larsemann Hills.

ATCM XXXI IP33. Medidas preventivas para evitar la introducción de especies alienas en la Antártida, en cumplimiento del Anexo II del Protocolo.

ATCM XXXIII IP43. Eradication of a vascular plant species recently introduced to Whaler’s Bay, Deception Island.

ATCM XXXV IP13. Colonisation status of the non-native grass Poa pratensis at Cierva Point, Danco Coast, Antarctic Peninsula.

Chwedorzewska, K. J. (2008). Poa annua L. in Antarctic: searching for the source of introduction. Polar Biology 31: 263–268.

Chwedorzewska, K. J., and Bednarek, P. T. (2012) Genetic and epigenetic variation in a cosmopolitan grass Poa annua from Antarctic and Polish populations. Polish Polar Research 33: 63-80.

Convey, P., and Quintana, R. D. (1997). The terrestrial arthropod fauna of Cierva Point SSSI, Danco Coast, northern Antarctic Peninsula. European Journal of Soil Biology 33: 19-29.

Corte, A. (1961). La primera fanerogama adventicia hallada en el continente Antartico. Contribucion del Instituto Antdrtico Argentino 62: 1–14.

Cuba-Díaz, M., Troncoso, J. M., Cordero, C., Finot, V. L., and Rondanelli-Reyes, M. (2012). Juncus bufonius L., a new alien vascular plant in King George Island, South Shetland Archipelago. Antarctic Science doi:10.1017/S0954102012000958.

Everatt, M. J., Worland, M. R., Bale, J. S., Convey, P., and Hayward, S. A. L. (2012). Pre-adapted to the maritime Antarctic? - Rapid cold hardening of the midge, Eretmoptera murphyi. Journal of Insect Physiology 58: 1104-1111.


Frenot, Y., Chown, S.L., Whinam, J., Selkirk, P.M., Convey, P., Skotnicki, M., and Bergstrom, D.M. (2005). Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications. Biological Reviews, 80, 45–72.

Greenslade, P. (1995). Collembola from the Scotia Arc and Antarctic Peninsula including descriptions of two new species and notes on biogeography. Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne 64: 305–319.

Greenslade, P., and Wise, K. A. J. (1984). Additions to the collembolan fauna of the Antarctic. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 108: 203–205.

Greenslade, P., and Convey, P. (2012). Exotic Collembola on subantarctic islands: pathways, origins and biology. Biological Invasions 14: 405-417.

Greenslade, P., Potapov, M., Russell, D., and Convey, P. (2012). Global collembola on Deception Island. Journal of Insect Science 12: 111. Available online: http://www.insectscience.org/12.111

Hack, W.H. (1949). Nota sobre un colémbolo de la Antartida Argentina Achorutes viaticus Tullberg. Notas del Museo de la Plata 14: 211–212.

Hughes, K. A., and Worland, M. R. (2009). Spatial distribution, habitat preference and colonisation status of two alien terrestrial invertebrate species in Antarctica. Antarctic Science 22: 221-231.

Hughes, K. A., Worland, M. R., Thorne, M., and Convey, P. (2013). The non-native chironomid Eretmoptera murphyi in Antarctica: erosion of the barriers to invasion. Biological Invasions 15: 269-281.

Molina-Montenegro, M., Carrasco-Urra, F., Rodrigo, C., Convey, P., Valladares, F. and Gianoli, E. (2012). Occurrence of the non-native annual bluegrass (Poa annua) on the Antarctic mainland and its negative effects on native plants. Conservation Biology 26: 717-723.

Olech, M. (1996). Human impact on terrestrial ecosystems in west Antarctica. Proceedings of the NIPR Symposium on Polar Biology 9: 299–306.

Olech, M. (2003). Expansion of alien vascular plant Poa annua L. in the vicinity of the Henryk Arctowski Station—a consequence of climate change? In: Olech, M. (ed) The functioning of polar ecosystems as viewed against global environmental changes. XXIX International Polar Symposium 89–90.

Olech, M., and Chwedorzewska, K. J. (2011). The first appearance and establishment of an alien vascular plant in natural habitats on the forefield of a retreating glacier in Antarctica. Antarctic Science 23: 153-154.

Pertierra, L. R., Lara, F., Benayas, J., and Hughes, K. A. (2013). Poa pratensis L., current status of the longest-established non-native vascular plant in the Antarctic. Polar Biology 36: 1473-1481.

Peter, H.-U., Buesser, C., Mustafa, O., and Pfeiffer, S. (2008). Risk assessment for the Fildes Peninsula and Ardley Island, and development of management plans for their designation as Specially Protected or Specially Managed Areas. Dessau: German Federal Environment Agency.

Peter, H.-U., Braun, C., Janowski, S., Nordt, A., Nordt, A., and Stelter, M. (2013). The current environmental situation and proposals for the management of the Fildes Peninsula Region. Dessau: German Federal Environment Agency.

Smith, R. I. L. (1996). Introduced plants in Antarctica: potential impacts and conservations issues. Biological Conservation 76: 135–146.

Smith, R.I.L. (2003). The enigma of Colobanthus quitensis and Deschampsia antarctica in Antarctica. In: Huiskes, A.H.L., Gieskes, W.W.C., Rozema, J., Schorno, R.M.C., Van der Vies, S.M., Wolff, W.S. (Eds.). Antarctic biology in a global context. Proceedings of the VIII SCAR International Biology Symposium. Backhuys Publishing, Leiden, pp. 234–239.

Smith, R. I. L., and Richardson, M. (2011). Fuegian plants in Antarctica: natural or anthropogenically assisted immigrants. Biological Invasions 13: 1-5.

Tsujimoto, M., Imura, S., and Kanda, H. (2010). Molecular systematics of a non-native vascular plant found near the Syowa Station, Antarctica. Poster at the International Polar Year Oslo Science Conference, Oslo, Norway [Unpublished].

Volonterio, O., de León, R. P., Convey, P., and Krzeminska, E. (2013). First record of Trichoceridae (Diptera) in the maritime Antarctic. Polar Biology, 36: 1125-1131.



Wise, K. A. J. (1971). The Collembola of Antarctica. Pacific Insects Monograph 25: 57–74.









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