Principles for creating bibliographic notes and end-of-work bibliography at the poznań university of economics

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The Attachment to the Instruction No. 39/2011

of the President of the Poznań University of Economics of July 25, 2011


  1. Basic definitions

References – an author’s short explanatory notes referring to indicated words, phrases or parts of the text. They indicate the origin of specific data, views or quotations. They may also criticize, explain, illustrate or provide detailed justification (apart from the main text) of the key point of the work. Citing other people’s thoughts in their original form or paraphrasing them without providing references is considered to be the violation of law and is regarded as plagiarism.

Bibliographic notes – notes which indicate the sources and works used by an author; they include bibliographic descriptions of the documents from which the information or citations used in the text come.

Bibliographic description – an ordered set of data about a document (book, paper, etc.), used for its identification.

Bibliography – an ordered list of documents (books, journal articles, etc.) selected according to specified criteria. It is compiled upon some common principles and serves specific information purposes.

End-of-work bibliography – a list of documents (printed and electronic) used by an author in the preparation of his/her work. It includes bibliographic descriptions of cited or related works, arranged in a specified order.

  1. Bibliographic notes in the Harvard system of referencing

  1. In the Harvard system of referencing, bibliographic notes are briefly cited within the text without providing the full bibliographic description of the source at the bottom of specific pages (precise and full bibliographic descriptions are given in the end-of-work bibliography).

Attention! Other references, e.g. the polemic ones, are traditionally given at the bottom of a specific page.

  1. In the Harvard system of referencing, you put bibliographic notes directly after the quotation or in another place which requires providing sources in the form of short bibliographic information – by supplying in square brackets:

the author’s name, or: co-authors’, editor’s or the first words of the title of the source (in the case of joint publications with no editor’s name given),

date of publication,

or, if necessary, the number of page or pages (depending on the context), to which the author of the work refers.


Despite the government’s optimism, it seems that public support for the reform is consistently diminishing [Kowalski 1999].

A strategic group is the group of firms in an industry following the same or a similar

strategy along the strategic dimensions [Porter 2006, p. 197].

In the contemporary market, mainly because of its dynamics, it is becoming increasingly important to anticipate change and use change to reach a competitive advantage [Albarran 2004, pp. 291-307].

A short description of the most interesting solutions is presented below [Europa 2010].

Reconstructing and summing up the research in this field [ Luka konkurencyjna 2002, pp. 11-17], it may be pointed out that an analytical scheme is a research tool which – in simple terms – identifies the relevant features or variables that describe a given phenomenon, process or a specific theoretical category, or which – from a more complex perspective – apart from identifying variables, specifies the area.

According to Słownik ekonomii PWN [Black 2008, p. 32], business is a general term which describes all forms of economic activity (industrial, professional and commercial) aimed at making a profit.

  1. If you refer to a few publications, cite all sources in the same brackets, placing them in order of publication date (earliest first). Separate the references using a semicolon.


One of the most dynamically developing study fields is a growing body of literature on coastal tourism [Wall 1971; Gormsen 1981; Pearce 1985; Smith 1992].

  1. The way in which you provide bibliographic information in a reference depends on the context: if the sentence or paragraph after which you should place a reference clearly indicates the author of the source (the author’s name is part of the statement), put only the year in brackets, and, if necessary, the page number.


According to Becker [1990], economic theory puts emphasis on rationality which refers to the whole market rather than to individual households.

M. Obrębalski [1998, p. 25] takes the view that the creation of the positive image of a city, county or district requires “undertaking comprehensive action aimed at strengthening the identity of a given territorial unit in its neighbourhood.”

  1. If there are two authors of the publication, give both, using the conjunction “and”.


The above data should also be taken into consideration while evaluating the innovativeness of an enterprise [Kwiatkowski and Wasilewski 1998, pp. 43-45].

Do the same if there are three authors. Put the conjunction ‘and’ before the last name.


Innovations do not need to be copied and assimilated [Lachowski, Szambelańczyk and Woźniak 2009, pp. 67-71].

  1. If there are more than three authors, cite only the first followed by ‘et al’ (which means ‘and others’).


At the same time, it was emphasized that conclusions drawn on the basis of these models should translate into decisions made at the microeconomic level [Fujita et al. 1999].

Thus, networks are often seen as the third possible form of coordinating business activity, next to the market and hierarchy [Thompson et al. 1993, pp. 1-19], particularly as an intermediate form between the market and hierarchy [Thorelli 1986; Jarillo 1998].

  1. If some of the works referred to in the publication have authors of the same name and the same publication date, they should be distinguished by adding the initials of the authors’ first names.


[Nowak A. 2003; Nowak W. 2003]

  1. If an author has published more documents in the same year, distinguish between them by adding lowercase letters (with no space), e.g. 1991a, 1991b; use the same symbols in the end-of-work bibliography.


Mäki [2007a] has clearly shown that economics imperialism, just like the above-mentioned process of the unification of theory within economics, may be methodologically justified as the implementation of the ideal concept of the unification of science (the unity of science) known from natural sciences [Strawiński 1997, Mäki 2001].

As it seems that almost everything has been said about the conditions and prospects of the economic growth – also in Poland [Płowiec et al. 2001; Kołodko 2002a, 2002b; Owsiak et al. 2002; Noga 2004] – it is worth reconsidering some aspects of this key phenomenon for the functioning and development of a society.

  1. If you are giving a direct quotation, you should put it in quotation marks; you also need to include the page number.


Even the most impulsive of shoppers “do not give in to every spontaneous buying demand” [Rook and Fisher 1995, p. 306].

You should also include the page number when you do not give a direct quotation, but you describe another author’s thought using your own words. It is not necessary, though.

  1. If you refer to a work you did not read, which is cited in the work you read, you cannot cite the author of the former publication, but you should acknowledge the work you actually have.


According to Shapiro [as cited by Bellenger, Robertson and Hirschmann 1978, p. 15], “there is no such thing as a group of impulse products, as almost everything may become an object of impulse buying for a specific consumer.”

  1. If you want to include several different citations in one set of brackets, they should be arranged in chronological order or in another order, depending on the context. They should be separated by a semi-colon.


Although the process and main results of economics imperialism have been described in a number of studies [Tullock and McKenzie 1975; Stigler 1984; Hirschleifer 1985; Lazear 2000; Bowmaker 2005], except for two works [Fine 1999; Amadae 2003], there are no publications which would make an effort to analyse the historical background of this phenomenon [Mäki 2007a, p. 4].

If you need to cite works of a few authors and they were published in different years, in order to avoid repeating the same name with each successive date in the same brackets, you should arrange works chronologically within the same author.


For most of that period, until the 1980s, this influence was unilateral – economics imitated, paraphrased or absorbed various elements of “hard” sciences: their research methods and standards, scientific results, related philosophical views, etc. [Mirowski 1989, 2002; Wentraub 2002; Hands 2006].

  1. If you cite studies, reports, statistical data compiled by organisations, institutions, etc., and their authors (editors) are not specified, provide the name of the issuing body.


We are witnessing dynamic changes as regards healthcare and personal hygiene – prices of these goods and services in 2009, as provided by the Main Statistical Office (GUS - Główny Urząd Statystyczny), were higher than a year before [GUS 2010].

Most observers and opinion-forming bodies believe that an era of exceptionally low real interest rates is now over [International Financial Statistics 2006].

III. End-of-work bibliography in the Harvard system of referencing

  1. The end-of-work bibliography in the Harvard lists only those sources that an author cited in his/her work.

  2. The cited document is the main source of data included in the bibliographic description. Whenever possible, elements of a bibliographical reference should be taken from the title page of the publication or its equivalent (e.g. the label of an audio document, etc.). If there is no title page or its equivalent in the document, it is acceptable to provide necessary data from another source, such as a book cover or packaging. In case of electronic documents, it is the screen which displays the title that serves as the main source of reference. If there is no such screen, you may use data from the attached documentation or packaging.

  3. Bibliographic descriptions are arranged alphabetically by author or by publication title (if there is no author/editor/issuing body); individual references should not be numbered.

  4. The first element of an individual bibliographic description is the author’s name and initial of his/her first name. It is followed by the year of publication, and then by other elements of a description.

  5. Works of one author are arranged by date of publication, from the earliest to the most recent one.


Dobrzyńska, T., 1991, …

Dobrzyńska, T., 1996a, …

Dobrzyńska, T., 1996b, …

Dobrzyńska, T., 2003, …

If two works of the same author were published in the same year, you should provide them in alphabetical order by title.


Dobrzyńska, T., 1996a, Granice …

Dobrzyńska, T., 1996b, Wskaźniki …

  1. If the same person is the author or the first co-author of several documents (and thus a few bibliographic descriptions in the reference list begin with the same name), you should first provide the works this author wrote on his/her own, and then supply the ones he/she contributed to as a co-author.


Nowak, T., 2001, …

Nowak, T., Kowalski, T., 1998, …

  1. In case of collective works, you should provide the editor’s or editors’ surname followed by the abbreviation “ed.” or “eds.” (“red.” for Polish publications).


Gawron, I. (red.), 1996, Kodeks postepowania cywilnego, Wydawnictwo Wyższej Szkoły Bankowej, Poznań.

Dowgiałło, Z. (red.), 1998, Słownik ekonomiczny przedsiębiorcy, Poltext, Warszawa.

  1. In case of works published abroad, you need to provide the abbreviation of terms such as editor, edition, number, volume, etc., in the language of the publication.


Description of a publication written in Polish

Description of a publication written in English

Description of a publication written in German

Description of a publication written in French



ed. or eds. (if there are two or more editors)






2nd ed.

3rd ed.

4th ed., etc.

2 Aufl.

3 Aufl.

2e éd.

3e éd.











  1. A bibliographic description of a book – required elements of a description.

author’s name, initial of first name,

year of publication,

title of the work. subtitle (italicised, words in the title and subtitle in the English language, except for conjunctions and prepositions, begin with uppercase letters),

translator’s name,

number of edition (it is provided when it is other than the first, Arabic numerals are used),

publishing house,

place of publication.




One author

[Fedorowicz 1994]

Fedorowicz, Z., 1994, Podstawy teorii finansów, Poltext, Warszawa.

Two authors

[Bien and Sokół 1998]

Bien, W., Sokół, H., 1998, Ocena sytuacji finansowej banku komercyjnego, Difin, Warszawa.

Three authors

[Ostasiewicz, Rusnak

and Siedlecka 2006]

Ostasiewicz, S., Rusnak, Z., Siedlecka, Z., 2006, Statystyka. Elementy teorii i zadania, wyd. 6 popr., Wydawnictwo Akademii Ekonomicznej im. Oskara Langego, Wrocław.

More than three authors

[Cooper et al. 1993]

Copper, C., Fletcher, J., Gilbert, D., Wanhill, S., 1993, Tourism Principles and Practice Pitman Publishing, Springer, Berlin.


[Stiglitz and Charlton 2006]

Stiglitz, J.E., Charlton, A., 2006, Fair Trade. Szansa dla wszystkich, tłum. A. Szeworski, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa.

No author (or editor)

[Networking Essentials Plus 2009]

Networking Essentials Plus, 2009, Microsoft Press, Redmond, Washington.

If you cannot establish the date of publication on the basis of the source, use the copyright date, the date of printout or the expected date of publication instead.





[Wróblewski 2005]

Wróblewski, P., cop. 2005, Zarządzanie projektami informatycznymi, Helion, Gliwice.

Expected date of publication

[Banachowicz, Nowak

and Starkowski 1994]

Banachowicz, E., Nowak, J., Starkowski, M.T., ca 1994, Franchising, czyli Klucz do przyszłości, Business Press, Warszawa.


[Wodarski 2010]

Wodarski, K., printout 2010, Zarządzanie ryzykiem w procesie planowania strategicznego w górnictwie węgla kamiennego, Wydawnictwo Politechniki Śląskiej, Gliwice.

  1. A bibliographic description of a collective work (an edited work) – required elements of a description:

editor’s name, initial of first name,

year of publication,

title of work. subtitle (italicised, words in the title and subtitle in the English language, except for conjunctions and prepositions, begin with uppercase letters),

translator’s name,

number of edition (it is provided when it is other than the first, Arabic numerals are used),

publishing house,

place of publication.




One editor

[Somer 1995]

Somer, J. (red.), 1995, Ustawa o ochronie i kształtowaniu środowiska. Komentarz, Wydawnictwo Prawo Ochrony Srodowiska, Wrocław.

[Mäki 2002]

Mäki, U. (ed.), 2002, Fact and Fiction in Economics. Realism, Models and Social Construction, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

[Kay-Enders 1996]

Kay-Enders, B. (Red.), 1996, Marketing und Ethik. Grundlagen, Determinanten, Handlungsempfehlungen, Deutsche Marketing-Vereinigung, Wiesbaden.

[Plançon 2002]

Plançon, B. (red.), 2002, L'interculturel, marketing et management, 3e éd., l'Hermès, Lyon.

Three editors

[Davis, Marciano and Runde 2005]

Davis, J., Marciano, A., Runde, J. (eds.), 2005, Elgar Companion to Economics and Philosophy, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.

  1. A bibliographic description of a chapter/paper in a collective work (an edited work) – required elements of a description:

author’s name, initial of first name,

year of publication,

title of chapter/paper. subtitle (italicised, words in the title and subtitle in the English language, except for conjunctions and prepositions, begin with uppercase letters),

w: (in:)

editor’s name, initial of first name (red.)

title of collective work. subtitle (italicised, words in the title and subtitle in the English language, except for conjunctions and prepositions, begin with uppercase letters),

publishing house,

place of publication,





One author

[Stefańska 2001]

Stefańska, M., 2001, Wizerunek przedsiębiorstwa, in: Mruk, H. (red.),

Marketing. Nowości i trendy, Wydawnictwo Akademii Ekonomicznej w Poznaniu, Poznań, pp. 36–39.

Two authors

[Stryjakiewicz and Wajda 2006]

Stryjakiewicz, T., Wajda, J., 2006, Funkcjonowanie jednostek sektora

badawczo-rozwojowego w świetle założeń RIS "Innowacyjna Wielkopolska", w: Gaczek, M., Stryjakiewicz, T. (red.), System Innowacji

w Wielkopolsce – podsumowanie 2-letniego okresu wdrażania Regionalnej Strategii Innowacji, TotalDruk, Poznan, pp. 85–116.

Three authors

[Fadaeva, Nikulin

and Vinogradsky 2002]

Fadaeva, O., Nikulin, A., Vinogradsky, V., 2002, Informal Economy of Rural Households. Restructuring of Family Networks and Strategies, in: Neef, R. (ed.), The Social Impact of Informal Economies in Eastern

Europe, Ashgate, Alderhot, pp. 23–45.

Paper in a scientific journal

[Gaczek 2006]

Gaczek, W.M., 2006, Polaryzacja czy wyrównanie szans rozwoju gospodarczego w regionach Polski, w: Korenik, S., Wilk, K. (red.), Gospodarka – przestrzeń – rozwój, Prace Naukowe Akademii Ekonomicznej we Wrocławiu nr 1143, Wydawnictwo Akademii

Ekonomicznej im. Oskara Langego we Wrocławiu, Wrocław, pp. 23–37.

Conference proceedings

[Walczak and Wiza


Walczak, K., Wiza, W.R., 2007, Designing Behaviour-rich Interactive Virtual Museum Exhibitions, w: Arnold, D., Niccolucci, F., Chalmers, A. (eds.), VAST 2007. The 8th International Symposium on Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage. The 5th EUROGRAPHICS Workshop on Graphics and Cultural Heritage. Brighton, UK 2007, November 26-30, Eurographics Association, Aire-la-Villes, pp. 101–108.

  1. Bibliographic descriptions of works published by government institutions, organisations or corporate bodies (no author or editor) - required elements of a description:

name of issuing body (full name or acronym)

date of publication

title. subtitle (italicised, words in the title and subtitle in the English language, except for conjunctions and prepositions, begin with uppercase letters),

publishing house

year of publication




[European Commission 2004]

European Commission, 2004, First Report on the Implementation of the Internal Market Strategy 2003–2006, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

[GUS 2009]

GUS, 2009, Rocznik demograficzny 2008, Zakład Wydawnictw Statystycznych, Warszawa.

[NBP 1997]

NBP, 1997, Sprawozdanie z realizacji polityki pieniężnej w roku 1996, NBP, Warszawa.

  1. Bibliographic descriptions of journal articles – required elements of a description:

author’s name, initial of first name,

year of publication,

title of article. subtitle (italicised, words in the title and subtitle in the English language, except for conjunctions and prepositions, begin with uppercase letters),

title of journal,

number of journal,

page number.




One author

[Bludnik 2009]

Bludnik, I., 2009, Redukcjonizm w modelach neokeynesowskich, Ekonomista, nr 6, pp. 761–774.

Two authors

[Conley and Galeson


Conley, T.G., Galeson, D.W., 1998, Nativity and Wealth in Mid-nineteenth Century Cities, Journal of Economic History, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 468–493.

Three authors

[Schröder, Berghaus

and Zimmerman 2005]

Schröder, H., Berghaus, N., Zimmerman, G., 2005, Das Blickverhalten der Kunden als Grundlage für die Warenplatzierung im Lebensmitteleinzelhande, Der Markt, Vol. 44, Nr. 1, pp. 31–43.

More than three authors

[Holley et al. 2000]

Hooley, G., Cox, T., Fahy, J., Shipley, D., Beracs, J., Fonfara, K., Snoj, B., 2000, Market Orientation in the Transition Economies of Central Europe. Tests of the Narver and Slater Market Orientation Scales, Journal of Business Research, vol. 50, iss. 3, pp. 273–285.

  1. Bibliographic descriptions of newspaper articles – required elements of a description .

author’s name, initial of first name,

year of publication,

title of article. subtitle (italicised, words in the title and subtitle in the English language, except for conjunctions and prepositions, begin with uppercase letters),

newspaper title,

day and month, e.g. March 1,

page number.




One author

[Sikora-Lizak 2011]

Sikora-Lizak, A., 2011, Źródło wiedzy o cenach transferowych, Rzeczpospolita, February 3, p. C3.

Three authors

[Hille, Kirchgaessner

and Taylor 2011]

Hille, K., Kirchgaessner, S., Taylor, P., 2011, Access Denied, Financial Times (London), April 8, p. 7.


[Becler 2011]

Becler, R., 2011, O śmierci trzeba mówić prawdę, interviewed by A. Wacławik-Orpik, Gazeta Wyborcza, March 11, p. 18.

  1. Bibliographic descriptions of science theses (Ph.D., master’s, bachelor’s theses) – required elements of a description:

author’s name, initial of first name,

year of completion,

title of thesis. subtitle (italicised, words in the title and subtitle in the English language, except for conjunctions and prepositions, begin with uppercase letters),

designation (level, e.g. Ph.D. thesis),

name of institution, in which the thesis was completed,

seat of institution

form of access

If the work is available online,

www address

[date accessed].




Unpublished manuscript

[Kochalski 1999]

Kochalski, C., 1999, Analiza strategiczna kosztów w zarządzaniu przedsiębiorstwem, Ph.D. thesis, Akademia Ekonomiczna, Poznań, [unpublished manuscript].

Work available online



Alankiewicz, T.P., 2009, Skuteczność funkcjonowania gospodarki na przykładzie jednostek samorządowych województwa wielkopolskiego,

Ph.D. thesis, Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny, Poznań, [Accessed 23/03/2011].

  1. Bibliographic descriptions of Internet sources (books, journal articles, papers in collective works, reports) – required elements of a description:

elements specified in points 5-14 (depending on the kind of document)


www address

[date accessed]




Electronic book

[Roth 2010]

Roth, J.D., 2010, Your Money. The Missing Manual, O'Reilly Media, New York, [Accessed 01/01/2011].

Electronic newspaper article

[Bobińska 2002]

Bobińska, M., 2002, Ryzykowny kurs, Gazeta Prawna, October 5, [Accessed 05/03/2003].

Electronic journal article

[Christensen 2004]

Christensen, P., 2004, The Health-promoting Family, Social Science and Medicine, vol. 59, no. 2, s. 223–243, [Accessed 06/05/2009].

Electronic conference proceedings

[Wilde 2006]

Wilde, E., 2006, Merging Tree. File System and Content Integration, w:15th International Conference on World Wide Web, WWW 2006, May 23–26, Edinburgh,

[Accessed 03/07/2007].

Electronic working papers

[Zaucha 2010]

Zaucha, J., 2010, Economization of Spatial Planning. The Case of Poland’s Spatial Development Concept, Working Papers, no. 002/2010,

Institute for Development, Sopot, http://www.instytut [Accessed 05/03/2011].

  1. Bibliographic descriptions of materials found on webpages – established by institutions, organizations or individuals – required elements of a description:

author’s name, initial of first name or name of issuing body

year of completion (if it is not obtainable- copyright year, year of the most recent update)

title of document. subtitle (italicised, words in the title and subtitle in the English language, except for conjunctions and prepositions, begin with uppercase letters),

publisher (if possible)

place of publication (if possible)

www address

[date accessed].





[Woźniak 2008]

Woźniak, J., 2008, Globalny rynek biopaliw – czy to możliwe? 33903,Globalny-rynek-biopaliw-czy-to-mozliwe,

1,56,1.html [Accessed 04/03/2011).

Two authors

[Cross and Towle 1996]

Cross, P., Towle, K., 1996, A Guide to Citing Internet Sources, Bournemouth University, Poole, harvardsystint.html [Accessed 23/03/2011).


[Generalny Inspektor

Ochrony Danych

Osobowych (Inspector General for the Protection of Personal Data ) 2011]

Generalny Inspektor Ochrony Danych Osobowych, ca 2011, Jakie warunki musi spełnić administrator danych, aby przetwarzać dane zgodnie z ustawą o ochronie danych osobowych?, GIODO, Warszawa, 3201/j/pl/ [Accessed 02/03/2011].

No author (wiki pages)

[Wikipedia 2011]

Wikipedia, 2011, Łańcuch Markowa, [Accessed 17/05/2011].

No author/issuing body

[The non-hub story 2007]

The non-hub story, 2007, [

Accessed 28/07/2007].

In case of online documents accessed exclusively via computer network, it is allowed to:

  • shorten a long title or subtitle unless it does not result in a loss of relevant data; all omissions must be marked with a semi-colon,

  • if the work does not include the name of the individual or issuing body responsible for its publication, you should omit this element; it is the title that should be the first element of a reference and bibliographic description’

  • if the year of publishing the document cannot be established, you should provide the copyright year or the year of the most recent update instead; in case of the lack of data, you should include the expression “no date”,

  • if the publisher and place of publication are not to be found, you should omit these elements of a bibliographic description.

  1. Bibliographic descriptions of legislative acts.




[Ustawa z 17 lutego 2005] (Act of 17 February 2005)

Ustawa z 17 lutego 2005 r. o informatyzacji działalności podmiotów realizujących zadania problemowe, Dz.U., nr 64, poz. 565.

(The Act of 17 February 2005 on the Computerization of Activities of Entities Performing Public Tasks, Journal of Laws of 2005, no. 64, item 565)

[Rozporządzenie MSWiA z 27 listopada 2006] (Regulation of the Ministry of Interior and Administration of 27 November 2006)

Rozporządzenie MSWiA z 27 listopada 2006 r. w sprawie sporządzania I doręczania pism w formie dokumentów elektronicznych, Dz.U., nr 227, poz. 1664.

(Regulation of the Ministry of Interior and Administration of 27 November 2006on the preparation and delivery of documents in the electronic form, Journal of Laws of 2006, no. 227, item 1664.)

[Sprawozdanie finansowe 2005] (Financial report 2005)

Sprawozdanie finansowe Gamma Capital Spółki Akcyjnej w Oświęcimiu, 2005, M.P.B., nr 1742, poz. 12249.

(Financial report of Gamma Capital, Joint Stock Company, based in Oświęcim, 2005, M.P.B., no. 1742, item 12249)

[Articles of Agreement 2004]

Articles of Agreement, 2004, IMF, Washington.

[Chronology 2000]

Chronology. IMF Adapts and Expands Operations to Meet Member’s Countries Changing Needs, 2000, IMF Survey Supplement, no. 29.

  1. Bibliographic descriptions of norms – required elements of a description:

number of norm

title of norm




[PN-ISO 690-2:1999 ]

PN-ISO 690-2:1999, Przypisy bibliograficzne – Dokumenty elektroniczne i ich części.

[PN-EN ISO 661:2006]

PN-EN ISO 661:2006, Oleje i tłuszcze roślinne oraz zwierzęce – Przygotowanie

próbki do badań.

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