ABSTRACT. Dworacki Sylwester, O parabazie u jej antycznych źródeł [On parabasis in its ancient sources]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 10. Poznań 2008, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 11-18. ISBN 978-83-232-1946-0. ISSN 1644-6763.
Modern reflection on a literary work uses the term “parabasis”, which has been borrowed from ancient tradition. In the article the author goes back to the very sources of parabasis and reminds the meaning of the word parabasis which in Greek means departure from something leaving the stage and the chorus remains to address the audience directly and in reference to Old Attic comedy, with which it is unequivocally associated, it means the structural part of a literary work in which a suspense of dramatic action occurs. Particular parabases were discussed which are found in the extant comedies of Aristophanes, this in order to find out that in none of the comedies it occurs in its complete model form as accepted by classical philologists on the basis of material known from Aristophanes and from fragments of comedies by other authors. The practical function of parabasis and its particular parts were shown on the example of The Knights by Aristophanes. In the final part of the article the author presented some contemporary views on parabasis of which some speak traditionally about breaking the scenic illusion while the others about the integral relation of parabasis with the other parts of the comedy. The author concludes that in spite of all parabases in Greek comedy have no parallel either in the earlier or in the later Greek literature. It has its own poetics, its own structure, and explicitly breaks science illusion, even if Greeks differently viewed the very phenomenon of breaking illusion in drama.
ABSTRACT. Kozłowski Krzysztof, Między sceną a dziełem. O reformującej roli dramatów muzycznych Richarda Wagnera [Between stage a work of literature. In the reforming role of Richard Wagner’s musical dramas]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 10. Poznań 2008, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 19-29. ISBN 978-83-232-1946-0. ISSN 1644-6763.
In Between stage a work of literature. In the reforming role of Richard Wagner’s musical dramas the author tries to show that musical dramas of the German composer were actually important artistic events which could contribute to the understanding of the complex relations between the stage and the musical drama as preserved in the score. The lack of the unequivocally outlined conception of the work – incomplete at different levels and unspecified in its many aspects – gave an impulse to numerous stage experiments which appeared to be of significance just from the point of view of the history of the theatre. And so the history of staging Wagner’s dramas became a part of its history; Adolphe Appia, a Swiss reformer of the theatre was one of the first to find this regularity and tried to present it on stage using all the historical change ability of the latter.
ABSTRACT. Karasińska Marta, Wielką Reformę Teatru między bajki włożyć? [Should the Great Reform of the Theatre be written off as fiction?]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 10. Poznań 2008, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 31-42. ISBN 978-83-232-1946-0. ISSN 1644-6763.
The phenomenon of the Great Theatre Reform which concerned the works of outstanding stage-managers of the turn of their 19th century, preserved in our local humanistic tradition, does not exist as a separate phenomenon in the theatrological ideas in other countries. Observed for the first time in Poland by Leon Schiller, the movement of the revival of the European theatre, it is in direct relation with the modernistic breakthrough which occurred simultaneously and which superseded the Newtonian vision of the world with a new scientific paradigm – thermodynamics which revolutionised physics and Einstein’s theory of relativity. The new conception of space and time and of motion, the instrumental role of an observer in creating phenomena was reflected in the artistic works of modernism, mostly in the stage art, which is the most “space and time” art of all – mainly in the theatrical works of Adolphe Apia and Gordon Craig.
ABSTRACT. Maciąg Rafał, Teatr i dramat ciągle w morderczym uścisku. Uwagi na marginesie książki Hansa-Thiesa Lehmanna pt. „Teatr postdramatyczny” [Theatre and drama incessantly in a mur-derous grip. Side notes on Hans-Thies Lehmann’s book Postdramatic Theatre]. „Przestrzenie Teo-rii” 10. Poznań 2008, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 43-61. ISBN 978-83-232-1946-0. ISSN 1644-6763.
Article refers to Hans-Thies Lehmann ideas of understanding the drama shown in his book Postdramatic Theatre and tries to discuss with them. Lehmann shows synthetic theory of drama based on the thought coming from Georg Friedrich Hegel by the theory of modern drama of Peter Szondi, which interprets drama as the product of historical progress. Article express disappointment with several simplifications embedded in Lehmann theory of the constructing mechanisms of the presenting the real world phenomena used by the drama. Indicates the possibility of the different interpretation of the philosophic inspiration coming from Hegel and shows as an example proposition of Jacques Derrida. Article remains in the area of this analytic tradition and emphasizes semantic polyphony of the dramatic text, which is based on the special sense of time but completely different than Lehmann’s is.
ABSTRACT. Partyga Ewa, Tożsamość dziś: narracyjna? dialogowa? performatywna? [Identity today: narrative? dialogical? performative?]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 10. Poznań 2008, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 63-73. ISBN 978-83-232-1946-0. ISSN 1644-6763.
Crisis of disembodied and disengaged subject, reduced to Cogito and perceived in terms of substance and essence, contributed to the emergence of multiple, both modern and postmodern, propositions of describing how the Self, rendered now as an uncertain and dispersed entity, is constituted, negotiated or constructed. This article discusses three types of identity concepts popular in contemporary humanities, all of them accentuating the relational character of the self: the narrative or storied Self, the dialogical Self and the performative Self. The discussion focuses on the usefulness of the categories of drama and dialogue as the tools in re-thinking the question of the de-centered Self and its identity.
ABSTRACT. Błaszczak Monika, Kolażowa tożsamość medialna [The collage media identity]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 10. Poznań 2008, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 75-103. ISBN 978-83-232-1946-0. ISSN 1644-6763.
Mirrors and screens have affected the specific of knowing, especially of dramatical characters’ selfknowing. The personages are trying to walk through selfknowing, they are searching their identity asking themselves where is their “ego”. They want to see their real image in the mirror reflections. The process of growing the identity up which has taken place in the confrontation with the mirror reflection that calls Lacan’s interpretation, who tells about Mirror Phase as an indispensable stage of “me” moulding. But the anagnorisis can’t take place anymore. The character in mirror-screened space faces the problem of creating his own “ego” not only from the fragment of the reality given to him directly in the dialogue and relations with other characters but also in the face of his mirror’s reflection and copies in video projections. Besides selfknowing – inspiration, the problem of selfreflection in its works also appears. The memory is also the sort of mirror where the written pictures sometimes blur. In the contexts of contemporary “screened” dramas, the identity of character reaches the stage which we can call multicomplications. The character is shown as a dynamic dramatical space – the battle between the subject sphere and the object sphere. Breakdown and the lack of cohesion become the leading rule of character’s creating, where in the end looks like collage. New dramatical identity has arisen – the collage media identity.
ABSTRACT. Katarzyna Szalewska, Prawda cytatu, czyli o grze alegacjami (na podstawie cyklu „Paryskie pasaże” Krzysztofa Rutkowskiego). [The truth of quotation or on an allegations game (based on Krzysztof Rutkowski’s cycle Paris Passages)]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 10. Poznań 2008, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 105-118. ISBN 978-83-232-1946-0. ISSN 1644-6763.
The aim of this article is to consider the relationship between the practice of quoting and truth on the example of Krzysztof Rutkowski’s oeuvre. In an obvious way such an interpretation of the subject brings reflections closer to the analyses of intertextuality, however, that which distinguishes intertextual references in the texts discussed from the postmodernistic play with conventions is a different function of the hypotext present through quotations. First of all, it has to validate, i.e. also to axiologically mark the essayist’s exposition. The practice of quoting reminds an act of allegation, however, with the [one] reservation that it allows the element of the dialogue. Thus, this article is both an attempt at an analysis of the ways of functioning in the composition of an essay of attempts at imitation as textual strategies as well as – and mostly – combination of the allegation game with the problem of literary truth, the truth of the subject of the essay, but also of the truth expected in the reception by the readers.
ABSTRACT. Winer Agata, Potrawka z czystej inteligencji – metafora w literackiej antropologii konsumpcji [A fricasse of pure intellect – metaphor on the literary anthropology of consumption]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 10. Poznań 2008, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 119-134. ISBN 978-83-232-1946-0. ISSN 1644-6763.
The role of the sense of taste is underestimated by both modern philosophers and contemporary linguists, whereas, together with a wide range of food terminology, it is the base of metaphorical conceptualizations of many terms essential for western culture, such as an aesthetic taste and a digestion metaphor. I used the methodology presented by Lakoff and Turner in More than Cool Reason to analyse food metaphors in the prose written by Manuela Gretkowska and Edward Redliński. I examined their semantic potential and freshness or derivativeness as well as the role they play in the creation of artistic text.
ABSTRACT. Kluba Agnieszka, Poetyka a światopogląd. O twórczości Marii Pawlikowskiej-Jasnorzewskiej [Poetics and world view. On Maria Pawlikowska-Jasnorzewska’s works]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 10. Poznań 2008, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 135-168. ISBN 978-3-232-1946-0. ISSN 1644-6763.
Part one. This dissertation is devoted to the inspiration of Maria Pawlikowska-Jasnorzewska by the philosophy of the East, which she got to know through Arthur Schopenhauer’s writings. The first part contains a description of the manner in which the poet interpreted the inconsistency of the conception of the German philosopher who tried to combine in one all the elements of various religious and philosophical trends coming from India. We can look on Maria Pawlikowska-Jasnorzewska’s works of the pre-World War II years as on a peculiar literary adaptation of these various ideas, and, to be more exact, as on an attempt to construct such a poetic world in which there might be a coordination between diverse currents determined by the Brahminian and the Buddhist ideas. In Pawlikowska-Jasnorzewska’s early poems affirmation, paradox, (self/auto)irony and degradation of loftiness are concurrent, which are characteristic of the Buddhist attitude to the world and there is also avoidance of reflection of ethical nature so characteristic of Brahminism.
Part two. In the second part of the dissertation on the influence of Indian philosophy on Maria Pawlikowska-Jasnorzewska’s views, these elements of her writings are analysed (such as miniaturisation, condensation, formal rigour, intellectualisation of lyricism), which reflected her way of thinking. The description also contains the next stage of writing activity of the author of Krystalizacje [Crystallisations] during which the poet gave up the affirmative amoralism, and in her poetry occurred a confrontation of the negativist assumptions of Brahminism with the Buddhist imperative of mercy. Along with the acceptance of the evaluative perspective in Pawlikowska-Jasnorzewska’s poetic diction elements of gnostic rhetoric began to appear in which she followed Schopenhauer, and in her writings the process of “decay of the poetic form” began to be more and more visible, which was described by critics, and which led through the poetics of a sketch and fragment in her later prewar works to the notebook-like last recordings of the war period.
ABSTRACT. Solski Zbigniew Władysław, Muzyka Ariela i muzyka Kalibana w „Burzy” Williama Szekspira [Ariel’s and Caliban’s music in William Shakespeare’s The Tempest]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 10. Poznań 2008, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 171-195. ISBN 978-83-232-1946-0. ISSN 1644-6763.
Jan Kott wrote that in Tempest there is Ariel’s music and Caliban’s music [Ariel’s and Caliban’s music] [the music of Ariel and that of Caliban] and that there have not been a performance of TheTempest in which there would be no distinction [diefferentiation] be tween the two [musics]". Differentiation of various [distinct] musics is not only a theatrical trick which serves greater dynamics [making more dynamic] the reception of the play, but it touches deeper and structural meanings. Opposition between Caliban’s music and Ariel’s music [and that of Ariel] de facto [in fact, really] reveals a clash of a civilisational character [a civilisational/civilisation clash].
For the culture of Italiy [Italian culture] rooted [ingrained] in the antiquity and in the "Dionysian" by its primaeval [primordial] character of Ariel's culture the world of symbolism of Caliban's mother is both distant and alien. Like [the witch] Sycorax in the role of the queen of the island did not find common grounds with Ariel, neither can her son communicate [reach an agreement] with Prospero. Between Ariel's music and that of Caliban there is some fissure which makes it difficult to produce [develop] the state of mutual balance. On the hand, harmony, however, unstable [impermanent], can be found in the relations between Prospero and Ariel. Their mutual harmony [unanimity conformity] could be explained by the capability [ability] of their cultures to take up cooperation with division of the roles and with a peculiar specialisation. Prospero’s "Appolinian", which is manifested in the indirect visual [image, picture] accounts [transmissions] found its complement [supplement] [was complemented/supplemented] in Ariel’s Dionysian culture, which was expressed directly in the recreation, in the musical symbol of [the] will. Thus, they were not in opposition to each other as elements [segments, parts] of contradiction, but rather as two antithetic ways [manners] of its removal [lifting]. While retaining their style, the music of Prospero and that of Ariel found unity in a common source: "the music of [the] spheres". Was Caliban’s inability to enter a dialogue with representatives of other cultures caused by the character of his defiant [mutinous, rebellious] anti-music? Ot just the opposite, the reason is hidden in the dark [murky, sombre] past, in some hurt wound] the memory of which makes the intercivilisational exchange and cooperation difficult?
ABSTRACT. Ulicka Danuta, Bachtin i wokół Bachtina. Wprowadzenie do kalendarium [Bakhtin and around Bakhtin. Introduction to a chronology]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 10. Poznań 2008, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 199-216. ISBN 978-83-232-1946-0. ISSN 1644-6763.
“An introduction to a chronology” considers the probable reasons of the absence in Poland of a monograph of the “life and work of Mikhail Bakhtin” type and also undertakes the complex questions of constructing a chronology (calendar) of his “work and days”. It indicates the area of facts and reports which are possible to account for, the inconvenience of introducing them, the necessity of making reductions and cuts. But through this it signals this wider context in which are contained Bakhtin's studies as well as those of the most important members of his circles. Thus in this work is undertaken the (so topical until recently) theoretical problem of the borders of the context which is so indispensable for understanding the text.
ABSTRACT. Ulicka Danuta, Kalendarium [Chronology]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 10. Poznań 2008, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 217-241. ISBN 978-83-232-1946-0. ISSN 1644-6763.
The listing of the dates of life and work of Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakhtin and of the leading members of his philosophical-literary clubs has been compiled based on the available data, sometimes still uncertain ones. Admittedly, a list of dry facts will not replace a monograph which does not exist in Poland, however, it allows at least to order the most important facts biographical and editorial facts around which a lot of misunderstanding, conjectures and false convictions have grown. Like each such chronology it is selective and in agreement with the author’s cognition of the whole and its interpretation. However, it does not impose them, leaving to the readers the liberty of creating their own narrations. As opposed to similar English and Russian chronologies (calendars), it introduces figures who are considered to be of second-rate (Nikolai Bakhtin, Konstantin Vaginov, Boris Zubakin, Mikhail Tubiansky) – probably only due to the fact that their works are still less known than those of the main heroes. Meanwhile it is they who give the idea about the impetus and variety of this strange unofficial and antiofficial institution which were Bakhtin's circles.
ABSTRACT. Kusiak Jolanta, Staropolskie struktury i satyry menippejskie. Próba typologii gatunku [Old Polish satires and menippean structures. An attempt at a typology of the genre]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 10. Poznań 2008, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 243-255. ISBN 978-83-232-1946-0. ISSN 1644-6763.
In the article Old Polish satires and menippean structures. An attempt at a typology of the genre the author took up the subject of the possibility of existence of this kind of satire derived from the antique tradition. Thus, what needed to be more precisely explained was the incoherent theoretical classification of ancient menippean satires and their influence on the later texts. An attempt at ordering the hitherto statements on the subject by scholars (among other M. Bakhtin, N. Frye, D. Shanzer, H, Rikonnen, K. Korus, R. Piętka and J. Styka) was enriched with a not well-known German studies, especially Stefan Trappen's important book. The outline of the background of antique tradition of the genre allowed a wider view at the 17th and 18th century texts (old Polish texts) amongst which menippean satires can be found. On the grounds of native history of literature a division appeared to be indispensable into texts which either formally or actually belong to this genre, thus to the menippean structures and satires. The form of prosimetrum which characterises, among other things, Gadka Hrycia z Fortuną [Hryć’s chat with Fortune] by J.S. Herburt or Something New... by Ł. Opaliński does not necessarily become the only constitutive genological feature of mennipea. Tracking the presence of the menippean satire in old literature ended with the observation of 4 important works: Żona wyćwiczona [A Well-trained Wife], Złote jarzmo małżeńskie [The Golden Yoke of Marriage], Gorzka wolność młodzieńska [The Bitter Freedom of Youth] and Malpa-człowiek w cnotach, obyczajach i kroju [The Monkey in virtues, customs and clothes]. The suggested inter-genre division into satires and structures allows to see the ties which join Polish literature with European traditions, and at the same time takes into account their their distinctness. The standard example of this is a form of a manippean letter (among others, often found in I. Krasicki’s works), noted as an aftermath of menippea. The article fits within the current of philological studies on the menippean satire, which has been undertaken only recently.