ABSTRACT. Wysłouch Seweryna, Ikoniczność i ucieczka od referencji (na przykładzie filmów Zbigniewa Rybczyńskiego) [Iconicity and escape from reference]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 11. Poznań 2009, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 9-23. ISBN 978-83-232-1986-6. ISSN 1644-6763.
The concept of reference comprises three different ways of expressing reality: simulation, representation and transformation, and it is just from this point of view that I analyse Rybczyński’s films from the years 1976–1990.
Rybczyński was always against registration of reality and wants to present on the screen “mental pictures”, i.e. that which exists in our thoughts, fantasies and dreams. He submits reality to grotesque deformation (Święto [Holiday], 1976), destroys iconicity of the text through playful metaphor (Lokomotywa (Locomotive) based on J. Tuwim’s poem, 1976), creates on the screen surreal situations (Tango, 1980) and shows transformation of people and things (The Fourth Dimension, 1998). However, “mental pictures” also contain conventional cultural symbols, which are distinctly shown in Orchestra (1990). Therefore, lifting references leads into the world of signs and signs refer to the social experience, history and European culture. Through signs we reverse to the representation of reality.
ABSTRACT. Popczyk Maria, Muzeum sztuki – miejsce wizualizacji nowoczesności [Art museum – the place of visualisation of modernity]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 11. Poznań 2009, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 25-40. ISBN 978-83-232-1986-6. ISSN 1644-6763.
Art museum is a space of visualisation of myths and narration of modernity, combines in itself rationality with emotionality, thus provides ambivalent experiences to the audience. Critics of museums such as D. Preziosi present the negative side of the Enlightenment rationality: objectification of artworks and of the subject, building of scientific constructions acting for authorities. In turn, theoreticians who are favorably disposed towards museums such as O. Marquard or A. Huyssen convince that the museum in modern times performs a compensatory role, and its postmodern form allows a magnitude of histories and aesthetics. However, it was ultimately
J.-F. Lyotard who becomes its patron, since artist choosing museum for their activities resist the established thought, realising Lyotard’s idea of justice as a dispute.
ABSTRACT. Sendyka Roma, Esej i ekfraza (Herbert – Bieńkowska – Bieńczyk) [Essay and Ekphrasis (Herbert – Bieńkowska – Bieńczyk)]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 11. Poznań 2009, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 41-61. ISBN 978-83-232-1986-6. ISSN 1644-6763.
Michel Riffaterre in article L’Illusion d’ekphrasis put forward an idea of “critical ekphrasis” (1994) what may become an invitation to ask if other sub-genres/modes of ekphrasis may be described. The text Essay and Ekphrasis develops this question in the field of essayistic traditions. Evoking the tendency of writing on art in that genre (from Montaigne, Diderot, Ruskin, Pater to art historians, critics and artists) the article analyses three examples of ekphrases (by Zbigniew Herbert, Ewa Bieńkowska and Marek Bieńczyk) to voice a hypothesis that ekphrasis in an essay may be a useful proof for those who question (ostensive) representational powers of that textual tool. Essayistic ekphrasis seems to have a foremost referential character, pointing towards an object of art only to use it in order to describe cognitive procedures of the subject who in such a way (performatively and not overtly) pictures himself mirroring his inner self in dispersed fragments of cultural object, dismantling the temporal and spatial difference between the viewer and the object in an illusion of an immediate presence.
ABSTRACT. Telicki Marcin, Świadectwo obrazu. Związki ekfrazy i pamięci w „Zobaczonym” Julii Hartwig [The evidence of the image. The relationships of ekphrasis to memory in Julia Hartwig’s Zobaczone (What’s been seen)]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 11. Poznań 2009, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 63-82. ISBN 978-83-232-1986-6. ISSN 1644-6763.
In the article The evidence of the image..., the author reflects on two important problems in modern culture: considers the role of ekphrasis – the introduction of which connotes the concepts of iconicity, vividness and representation; and memory processes derived from descriptions of pieces of painting (but also views of nature). It appears that the change in time, that introduces changes to the perception, is shared by the two phenomena. Theoretical considerations are developed and legitimised by interpretations of poems from the volume Zobaczone. In her poetry,Julia Hartwig, sometimes considered as one of the Old Masters of poetry, very consistently combines interest in the visuality of the world and problems of recording continuity. Hence, it is advisable to analyse her poems as a play between the elusive image and its material evidence.
ABSTRACT. Grodecka Aneta, Ekfraza jako bohater parodii (o kilku wierszach Olgerda Dziechciarza) [Ekphrasis as a potagonist of parody – on some poems of Olgerd Dziechciarz]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 11. Poznań 2009, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 83-96. ISBN 978-83-232-1986-6. ISSN 1644-6763.
The appearance of the parody of poetic ekphrasis is an important argument in disputes concern-ing its status. The author considers Olgerd Dziechciarz’s collection of poems Galeria “Humbug” [The “Humbug” Gallery] as a missing link of reconstruction of the genre, referring to her own studies conducted as a post-graduate work Wiersze o obrazach. Studium z dziejów ekfrazy [Poems on pictures. A study in the history of ekphrasis] (in preparation). In the course of the analysis the author referred to paintings (H. Bosch, P. Cezanne, Michelangelo), other poetic commentaries of C. Miłosz, A. Stern as well as studies on art (among others D. Freedberg, F. Arnau), considering mainly the problems connected with the reception of pictures.
ABSTRACT. Jaworska Anna, O „Sponad” Juliana Przybosia i Władysława Strzemińskiego [On Sponad [From Above]by Julian Przyboś and Władysław Strzemiński]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 11. Poznań 2009, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 97-130. ISBN 978-83-232-1986-6. ISSN 1644-6763.
Julian Przyboś’s poetic volume Sponad [From Above]with artwork by Władysław Strzemiński is not a rewarding material for an interpretation since due to the tight coupling of the two remarkably powerful artistic personalities and the two kinds of sensitivity – literary and that of an artist, an analysis of poetic works in the shape given to them by an artist must be tainted with the latter’s views and must contain in itself interpretational doubleness. Thanks to graphic layouts and illustrations made by Strzemiński, the space of the poems became palpable and visible. Thus, not only individual words were extracted and emphasised, but also the “inter-words” somewhere between them, stating what was only implied or unstated. Strzemiński’s layouts conceal in themselves a set fuse for a bomb which poetry, exploding with new layers of meaning, may become.
ABSTRACT. Lubas-Bartoszyńska Regina, Umberto Eco – autobiograf? [Umberto Eco – an autobio-grapher?]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 11. Poznań 2009, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 131-153. ISBN 978-83-232-1986-6. ISSN 1644-6763.
This text shows that U. Eco is an autobiographer in only some sense of the word. He has not written an autobiobiographical text in which he would present a segment of his life. However, he told the history of his novelistic work and presented his intellectual train of thought in his essays, interviews, introductions to his works. There also exists an indirect autobiographism in Eco, which expresses signs of the author’s life and of his personality dispersed in his interpretative and theoretical writings on literature, aesthetics, history, in his feuilletons and in his novels. Five types of autobiographism have been distinguished in Eco as well as five autobiographical strategies within the indirect autobiographism. The first strategy – a strong presence of autorial I in the text – is not sufficient and requires support of some other of the strategies discussed.
ABSTRACT. Choińska Bogna, „Paradoks kłamcy” w perspektywie hermeneutycznej [“The liar’s paradox” from a hermeneutical prospect]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 11. Poznań 2009, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 155-164. ISBN 978-83-232-1986-6. ISSN 1644-6763.
The aim of my article is to present “the liar’s paradox” from a non empirical perspective of the language. The paradox may be as though “resolved” (but in just another way then it is done within the semantics view by Tarski), among other things, thanks to Lacan’s psychoanalysis. Namely “the liar’s paradox” which is connected with a division between a statement and an enunciation is treated by Lacan as accompanying a subject during his (her) process of gaining a certainty about himself (herself) and about the world and as impossible to overcome in a traditional way. The problem of “liar’s paradox” mayby merely suppressed. An attempt of suppressing of a nonsense took place, according to Lacan and Foucault, within the area of “Meditations” by Descartes and maybe more in theirs modern interpretations. The non empirical proposition of an elimination “the liar’s paradox” consists in an acceptance of the madness (as defined by Foucault) and at the same time in staying in a surface of some texts. This strategy does not allow to divide talking in two: the language and the meta-language. Moreover I try to discuss with Żiżek concept concerning with an incomprehension this problem (mainly the usage of the meta-language) by Derrida.
ABSTRACT. Zalewski Cezary, Panny z prowincji. „Ze wspomnień cyklisty” Bolesława Prusa wobec mitów miłości [Provincial young ladies. Bolesław Prus’s Ze wspomnień cyklisty [Memoirs of a cyclist]and love myths]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 11. Poznań 2009, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 165-181. ISBN 978-83-232-1986-6. ISSN 1644-6763.
The article places the now forgotten short story by Bolesław Prus Ze wspomnień cyklisty in the mythological and metaliterary context. The prevalent role of amorous plots in this work thus becomes explained through a reference to the myth of Androgyne, solidified in Plato’s Feast, that permeated Polish literature following the Romantic (A. Mickiewicz’s Forefathers, Part IV) and modernist works (S. Przybyszewski’s Androgyne). The article shows Prus’s critical attitude to thus outlined tradition, which assumes a direct and spontaneous nature of amorous desire, since the story’s protagonist only “falls in love” when other suitors appear with whom he can compete for women’s favours. At the same time, the deconstruction of the androgynous myth reveals yet another concept of desire. Hence the text meets the requirements of the “constructive parody” described by M. Głowiński.
ABSTRACT. Sobolczyk Piotr, Polonistyczny dyskurs edukacyjny (tezy) [The Polish Literary Scholarship for School Discourse (Theses)]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 11. Poznań 2009, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 183-207. ISBN 978-83-232-1986-6. ISSN 1644-6763.
The article raises the status of the literary scholarship for school discourse (in a specifically Polish context, but it can be generalized for all school communication about literature). It rejects the vision of a “minimized scientific literary scholarship discourse”. This discourse is seen as wholly different, because it transports the scientific prototypes (understood in a cognitive manner) selectively and with a big delay, but also it combines them with the prototypes derived from the ethical (moral) and political discourses (like f.e. the ministerially programmed list of literary works for school). The author debates the question how to introduce the scientific prototypes from zero, how to construct a school synthesis of literary history and whether it is possible to avoid the technique of a “school heuresis” (i.e. asking questions which include answers in them etc.).
ABSTRACT. Roszak Monika, Ocalić tajemnicę – specyfika inscenizacyjna teatru tańca Piny Bausch [Save the mystery – staging specificity of Pina Bausch’s dance theatre]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 11. Poznań 2009, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 211-222. ISBN 978-83-232-1986-6. ISSN 1644-6763.
In the article are presented the fundamental determinants of the style of the theatre of Pina Bausch. Tanztheater Wuppertal performances delight with their totality and originality (stage design, costumes, the musical layer, textual layer). Montage, collage, acting based on improvisation – these are the means which are the pillars of Bausch’s theatre. Tanztheater Wuppertal performances have reformed the modern ballet and created a new kind of performance based – apart from dance, movement and pantomime – on the realistic activities, routine behaviours, dialogues and singing.
ABSTRACT. Karwowska Bożena, Ciało i gender w obozach zagłady [Body and Gender in Nazi Concentration Camps]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 11. Poznań 2009, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 225-237. ISBN 978-83-232-1986-6. ISSN 1644-6763.
The article Body and Gender in Nazi Concentration Camps is an attempt to discuss difficult issues of human sexuality and sexually marked behaviors in the context of the concentration camps, and their descriptions in the memoirs of the survivors. Using notions and concepts of the so called “black American feminism” the author (referring extensively to books by Stanisław Grzesiuk and Zofia Romanowiczowa) shows how in the concentration camp the human body became the only space of a relative privacy of the prisoner. At the same time the body becomes a territory on which all – both biological and socially constructed – human fates cross.
ABSTRACT. Wilkołaska-Karpierz Magdalena, Porównanie relacji pamiętnikarskich z zesłania na Syberię Fiodora Dostojewskiego i Szymona Tokarzewskiego [Comparison of diaristic relations from exile to Siberia of Fyodor Dostoyevsky and Szymon Tokarzewski]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 11. Poznań 2009, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 239-252. ISBN 978-83-232-1986-6. ISSN 1644-6763.
The study contains a comparison of diarist’s relations from exile to Syberia of Fyodor Dostoyevsky and Szymon Tokarzewski. The subject of analysis are diaries of the Polish exile, mainly Siedem lat katorgi (Seven years of penal servitude) and Fyodor Dostoyevsky’s famous The House of the Dead. The author compared an image of Siberia and its inhabitants contained in both relations, a descrption of the ordeal itself and the relations between Dostoyevsky and Tokarzewski, submitted to detailed analysis, at the time when both of them were in exile. The subject of this work is also the artistic shape of both works. The article reminds of the relatively little known works of Szymon Tokarzewski to which a comparable space was devoted as to that of Dostoyevsky.