ABSTRACT. Tokarz Bożena, Twórca – stereotyp – profilowanie, czyli literacka rzeczywistość alternatywna [Writer – stereotype – modelling, or alternative literary reality]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 2, Poznań 2003, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 21-34, ISBN 83-232-1333-X, ISSN 1644-6763.
The man lives in the culture built by him, which also includes stereotypes both created and used by the writer, belonging to the structure of the composition the stereotypes reference convention, scheme, model and cliché. They are forms of consciousness and as such they do not make a category in poetics, becoming closer to the rhetoric embodied by different shapes of thoughts. At the same time they are not shapes of thoughts, but rather forms of consciousness. Stereotypes are terms and phenomena on the border of humanities, such as myth or topos. They exist in the area of all culture. The community sanctions their presence, both positive and negative.
ABSTRACT. Hejmej Andrzej, Stereotyp(y) muzyki w literaturze [Stereotype(s) of music in literature]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 2, Poznań 2003, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 35-48, ISBN 83-232-1333-X, ISSN 1644-6763.
The article concerns the question of music in literature, one of the problems of comparative studies, and terms: “non-musicality”, “musicality” as stereotypes in literary studies. In the course of considering these views the following problems are discussed: analogy between literature and music (esthetic point of view), “non-musicality” of literature (as quite contro-versial category in literary research), musical contexts and intertexts (numerous artistic and analytical-literary strategies), contemporary typology of music in literature (S. P. Scher, E. Wiegandt, F. Arroyas, S. Jeanneret).
ABSTRACT. Grochowski Grzegorz, Stereotypy – komunikacja – literatura, [Stereotypes – communication – literature]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 2, Poznań 2003, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 49-71, ISBN 83-232-1333-X, ISSN 1644-6763.
The article presents an attempt to establish what role is played by stereotypes within the process of literary communication. The main framework for the presented argumentation is based on the cognitivist approach. The “stereotypes” are defined as clusters of evaluative, but – against the background of the common concept – not necessarily negative, social judgements, beliefs and attitudes. They can be employed in literary studies as long as they are described more explicitly as semantic representations. The next claim is that stereotypical beliefs are organized as the sets of propositions which receive specific referential status within specific contextual employment. Literature can be analysed as one of the important social fields of such acquisition.
ABSTRACT. Michałowski Piotr, Strategie skandalu i stereotypy odbioru [The strategies of scandal and the stereotypes of reception]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 2, Poznań 2003, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 73-88, ISBN 83-232-1333-X, ISSN 1644-6763.
The terms used in this title are connected – as two opposite kinds of reaction to the text and they exist outside: in conciousness of author and reader. Stereotype is necessary to hold intercourse; scandal is the effect of disturbance in communication but sometimes there is inversely: the communication bases on expectation of scandal – as particular convention. Scandal is a subjective phenomenon; it isn’t an event, but it is a kind of response: protest or indignation. Most often it is created by media. This article is also the attempt formulate a small theory of scandal. It diferen-tiates accidental scandal from specially prepared one. Each of them is possible only it concerns the context of: person’s life (1), point of view (2), custom (3) or artistic canon (4). In the first one scandal is connected with a message; in the rest – depends only on verbal act.
ABSTRACT. Witosz Bożena, Schematy, wzorce tekstowe, gatunki mowy... (O kategoryzacji, kategoriach wypowiedzi językowych i ich modelowaniu) [Outlines, textual patterns, speech genres... (On categorisation, linguistic expression categories and their shaping)]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 2, Poznań 2003, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 89-102, ISBN 83-232-1333-X, ISSN 1644-6763.
The author, by undertaking the issue of categorisation of linguistic statement draws attention to the diversified terminology referring to the text patterns. The observation of the contents of notions – most frequently used nowadays in the theory of text /discourse – as well as their realm and methodological context, leads to the conclusion that this differentiation has its origins not only in the transformations taking place within theoretical discourse concerning the text (eg. pluralism of methodology, tendencies to integrating formulations etc) but also in inconsistent separation of particular levels of categorisation by the researchers, especially the basic level from those placed above and below the basic one.
The author suggests that the genre pattern should be treated as an issue from the basic level of categorisation, as it would enable the creation of typological network, which would be transparent and simultaneously it would portray – in the way most closed to the discourse practice – differentiation of the forms of expression. However, in description of the genre (basic category) it requires taking into consideration features of all levels of the discourse: formal, semantic, pragmatic, cognitive and stylistic.
ABSTRACT. Tabakowska Elżbieta, Ikoniczność: podobieństwo i „tertium comparationis” [Iconicity: similarity and tertium comparationis]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 2, Poznań 2003, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 103-118, ISBN 83-232-1333-X, ISSN 1644-6763.
The paper analyses the phenomenon of iconicity in relation to its significance for literary theory. One of the key notions in modern philosophy of language and linguistics, iconicity is seen as a motivated interrelation beween form and meaning. In this, it is akin to mimesis – one of the basic concepts in theory of literature. Based on similarity, iconicity requires a conscious presence of an observer, who discovers and states the existence of similarity by reference to a tertium comparationis. It occurs as an effect of a mental process, as an interface bewteen semantics (the level of conventionalized meaning) and pragmatics (the level of contextual modifications of meaning). Thus it is intrinsically subjective: a representation of things as seen by a cognizant mind. Defined as a similarity between a conceptual structure and a linguistic form created by the mind, iconicity is manifested as sequentiality, proximity or quantity of elements; it is either imagic or diagrammatic. As a property of all texts and all discourse, it blurs the traditional distinction between “literary” and “non-literary” uses of language: the difference reduces to one of quantity, which “literatury” being characterised by a larger quantity of motivated interrelationships combined with a lower level of their conventionalization.
The author concludes by claiming that – like mimesis – iconicity may be profitably discussed in terms of Roland Langacker’s notion of subjectification, with the tertium comparationis present in the mind rher than in the external reality.
ABSTRACT. Winiecka Elżbieta, Nierozstrzygalność – drugie imię dekonstrukcji? [Undecidability – the second name of deconstruction?]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 2, Poznań 2003, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 119-138, ISBN 83-232-1333-X, ISSN 1644-6763.
The article focuses on the problem of undecidability – the main feature of literature according to Derrida. Numerous examples of undecidability shows that it is not deconstruction which has found this kind of reading. For structuralists undecidability was a feature of poetry. Derrida broadens this onto all literary texts. Cancelling oposition between ‘inside’ and ‘outside’ he liquidates all natural for work contests: historical, sociological etc., and reduces literary text to the endless re-interpretation. It makes literary sigificants insignificant for culture and human being.
Exploration of the margins of the literary texts thwarts hierarchy of importancy and opens the door for different kinds of abuses. This is why the author argues with Derrida’s thesis and guards traditional role of the autor, reader and literature.
ABSTRACT. Lubas-Bartoszyńska Regina, Tożsamość i autobiografia [Identity and autobiography]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 2, Poznań 2003, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 139-157, ISBN 83-232-1333-X, ISSN 1644-6763.
Identity as an omnipresent category in science, art and life is considered by the author in refe-rence to man. The author is mainly interested in an individual identity as revealed in writing. It is most fully revealed in autobiographical writing. Considerations on the subject of autobiographical identity are preceded by a reflection on the identity of existence as contained in philosophy already since the times of Hume, in the writings of theologists and in essayist discourses. Roughly speaking, two conceptions are outlined in the writings of an autobiographical character, especially the ones which belong to the Franconian culture.
ABSTRACT. Mikołajczak W. Aleksander, Kaźmierczak Marek, Ku cyfrowym metamorfozom. Tradycja antyczna w cyberprzestrzeni [Through the cyber metamorphosis. The antique tradition in the cyberspace]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 2, Poznań 2003, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 159-178, ISBN 83-232-1333-X, ISSN 1644-6763.
There are a lot of the dynamic meanings – important messages for the west civilization – in the antique tradition, deeply rooted in every medium.
The authors of this text are showing us a lot of problems, connected with the ontological statue of text, context and relations among (not only between) sender and receiver, during the creating antique meanings in the different kinds of the communication. To be able to describe contemporary metamorphosis of the antique tradition they (the authors) are presenting us the most important changes in the west cultural reading – „through” the Internet – the antique heritage.
ABSTRACT. Hendrykowski Marek, Obraz filmowy jako dzieło sztuki [Film image as a work of art]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 2, Poznań 2003, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 179-189, ISBN 83-232-1333-X, ISSN 1644-6763.
The language of film art, or the artistic language of cinematography, is not a separate kind of language of moving images. It is only its specific kind whose basic function consists in looking for the ever newer layers of cinematographic expression in film, TV spectacle, video-art, “light, music and sound” performance and the like. The work of art of the moving image appears to be an utterance constructed in a peculiar manner. Signs used in it become signs of signs, images shown are images of images. Such a work, due to the specificity of its formation is characterised by information capability which is considerably higher than that of an ordinary non-artistic communication. The model of reality contained in it is richer, which results from a much deeper combination of elements co-creating its structure and its characteristic expression. Many meanings as a semantic principle and as an element of the art of moving images which is of main importance, distinguishes the work of this art from all the other kinds of cinematographic communications, which generally avoid the effect of many meanings.
ABSTRACT. Karasińska Marta, Teatr czy literatura? O literaturoznawczej teorii teatru [Theatre or literature (on the theory of theatre of based on the study of literature)]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 2, Poznań 2003, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 193-204, ISBN 83-232-1333-X, ISSN 1644-6763.
This work undertakes the problem of philological reflection on theatre, placing in the centre of considerations the relations between the word and the stage. Often criticised for its one-sidedness, the reflection of specialists in literary studies focuses modern scholars around two leading methodologies – that of semiology and that of phenomenology. In the article the author adduced some selected works of Western theorists - the classic book by Anne Ubersfeld “Reading Theatre”, which is a lucid example of “a literary theory of theatre”, which in fact ignores the specificity of stage art, and the publications which follow the semiological route and are the work of such well-known theatrologists as Erika Fischer Lichte, Keir Elam and Martin Esslin. The philological point of view adopted in these works causes either granting literature a dominant role with respect to theatre, or, in turn, makes it that both disciplines are treated as beings which have been artificially separated, devoid of any relationships. The works mentioned here are the proof of limitations and shortages of the semiological method, which is positively tested exclusively as a tool of the description of a performance and which is always incapable of making over-all attempts to look at a performance and at its semantics.