ABSTRACT. Bielik-Robson Agata, Obietnice i wymówki: Derrida i aporia podmiotowości [Promises and excuses: Derrida and the aporia of narcissism]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 6, Poznań 2006, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 9-18. ISBN 83-232-1703-3. ISSN 1644-6763.
The aim of this essay is mainly critical: it intends to demonstrate that despite all the promises to give account of a “deconstructive subjectivity,” Derrida failed to do so, postponing the moment of positive delivery and providing in the end only excuses. This charge relies on the thesis that Derrida – again, despite his overt declarations – proved unable to rethink critically the concept of narcissism which he himself saw as crucial for the future philosophical understanding of subjectivity. And although Derrida draws the concept of narcissism from the writings of Freud, it can be nonetheless easily shown that the meaning he attaches to this notion is much older: its true source appears to be Hegel’s famous critique of the beautiful soul. My purpose here will be to show that what Derrida calls the aporia of narcissism is, in fact, nothing more than the deconstructive version of the Hegelian dilemma of the beautiful soul – and, theoretically speaking, a rather “defunct” one, for it explicitly prohibits any dialectical procedure that could lead us out of this aporetic predicament.
ABSTRACT. Krajewska Anna, Dekonstrukcja jako problem estetyki (na przykładzie dramatycznego dyskursu Jacques’a Derridy) [deconstruction as a problem of aesthetics (on the example of Jacques Derrida’s dramatic discourse)]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 6, Poznań 2006, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 19-29. ISBN 83-232-1703-3. ISSN 1644-6763.
In this article the Author shows that J. Derrida’s discourse is of a dramatic character. The model which he adopts is the model of a drama. The vision of philosophy, literature and art is connected in Derrida with thinking, which in its basis is of theatrical character. The philosopher often reaches for the concepts connected with dialogue, agon, theatre, stage, drama recalls various theatrical conventions from Rousseau to Artaud. Deconstruction produces concepts which, acting in the text, provoke in it transformations, destructions and dislocations. Deconstruction means activity, is dynamic and dramatic, creates a peculiar scene referring to the metaphor of the theatre and directs the spectator’s attention onto the artistic imagination which creates this scene. Questioning of thinking in binary categories, projecting dramatic modality which suspends frame-works, construction of a sphere between fiction and reality produces a specific epistemological matrix, which reduces the figure of an observer for the sake of a performing actor. Deconstruction suspends aesthetics based on the category of a masterpiece, develops a new aesthetics, the subject of reference of which is an event, constructs a performative aesthetics connected with the drama.
ABSTRACT. Leśniak Andrzej, Popiół i szarość – pamięć koloru. Jacques Derrida i Anselm Kiefer [Ashes and the grey – memory of colour. Jacques Derrida and Anselm Kiefer]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 6, Poznań 2006, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 31-37. ISBN 83-232-1703-3. ISSN 1644-6763.
The imaginary landscapes of Anselm Kiefer and Jacques Derrida intersect at a very specific point. The motif of grey is present both in the painting activity of the German artist and in the textual body of the French theoretician. I have attempted here to analyse some particular images and a few fragments of text in order to show the importance and the function of grey in contemporary culture. The colour I deal with is unusual as it refers to some of the most pertinent topics of our history and art. The grey – both in the works of Kiefer and in the booklet of Derrida entitled Feu la cendre – is the trace of destruction, the sign of perishing and the colour of ashes. It is impossible to discuss the history of the 20th century without this very specific reference which is both visual and conceptual.
ABSTRACT. Majewski Tomasz, Pozycja intencjonalna widza: projekcja ciała w pole obrazu [intentional position of the spectator: projection of a body into the area of the image]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 6, Poznań 2006, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 39-50. ISBN 83-232-1703-3. ISSN 1644-6763.
Our own body, both as a physical object (Körper) and as a focus experiencing sensations (Leib) is usually the axis of our self-identification. In this the mode of presentation of one’s own body, in correlation of its accessibility "from the outside" and "from the inside", in which I receive my own body as one and the same, however, one cannot find an answer to the question about how can the bodily (corporal) identification be constituted, which does not have a uniaxial character as it is, e.g. in case of the painterly perception of trompe-l’œil or during the film showing. Projection of one’s own body, as is suggested by phenomenological studies of Edith Stein and Leopold Blaustein, may consist in suspending the direct relation to Körper when the basis of identification is merely Leib, which we experience in dislocation, in an unclear connection with the border of the field of imagined space. An important feature of this situation is that during projection of the spectator’s body into the field of an image to suspension is submitted not only the feeling of the body as a physical datum, but also space which remains as its real surrounding. The problems touched upon here can be considered as prolegomena to the phenomenology of a spectator-in-a-spectacle.
ABSTRACT. Lubas-Bartoszyńska Regina, Nowsze problemy teoretyczne pisania o sobie. Przykład wypowiedzi autobiograficznych pisarzy polskich ostatnich dziesięcioleci [Newer theoretical problems in writing about oneself: An example of autobiographical writings by Polish writers of the recent decades]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 6, Poznań 2006, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 51-67. ISBN 83-232-1703-3. ISSN 1644-6763.
The newer theoretical problems in the autobiography of Polish writers have been presented on theoretical and analytical planes. Among other theoretical issues one can find the problem of integrity, equating autobiography with novel and generally with fiction and separatism which relies on these distinctions. The author takes the position in between the issues but at the same time perceives a strong tendency “to write about oneself”, which results in the appriopriation of the field by fiction and essay. Hence the limitation in divisions of broadly understood autobiography to: “simple” autobiography and autobiography of men of letters; the classical and modern; reference and literary, those written in the form of a journal and reminiscent writing (autobiography in the narrow sense and memoirs).
The analysis of autobiographic texts of the recent years have been limited to selected newer problems, such as: the issue of the Other, “unreality of the past”, journal as a current experience. The issue of auto fiction and blog has also been commented on.
ABSTRACT. Dąbrowska Elżbieta, Tekst artystyczny między stylami i gatunkami (genologiczne „silva rerum” nowej i najnowszej literatury polskiej) [Artistic text between styles and genre (genological silva rerum of new Polish literature)]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 6, Poznań 2006, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 69-83. ISBN 83-232-1703-3. ISSN 1644-6763.
The paper discusses the state of literary art whose genres result from an interplay of various genological instruments. Multidimensional relations between styles, forms, and languages (uncommon and common speech practices) together with intertextual mechanisms of “making texts from texts” result in hybrid forms of expression, in their multidimensional and “blurred” genre classifications.
ABSTRACT. Telicki Marcin, Krótkie formy liryczne wobec problemów przedstawiania rzeczywistości [Short lyrical forms in view of presentation of problems of reality]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 6, Poznań 2006, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 85-101. ISBN 83-232-1703-3. ISSN 1644-6763.
An expression “the shortest poem” as a genre term seems to be imprecise, however, both its functioning amongst other literary forms and unstabilised boundaries of the modern genology make it that it is a necessary definition. Outstanding modern poets (Białoszewski, Miłosz, Grochowiak and others), reach for this undefined attractive form, trying to make it a key to the world (hence the problems of mimesis which are discussed in this article) and to the other world (category of transgression). What is more “the shortest poems” appear most often in their later work, and minimalisation of the form leads to condensation of meanings (like a sage, they utter fewer words, but important ones). The article is also a point of departure for the discussion on the state of modern culture and condition of man who continuously faces the same fundamental questions.
ABSTRACT. Gołębiewska Maria, Koncepcja dzieła sztuki Karola Irzykowskiego – aspekt estetyczny i poznawczy [Conception of the work of art by Karol Irzykowski – aesthetic and epistemological aspects]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 6, Poznań 2006, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 103-119. ISBN 83-232-1703-3. ISSN 1644-6763.
The text presents the main aesthetic theses of Karol Irzykowski, concerning the work of art. Karol Irzykowski (1873-1944) – the Polish writer, critic and theorist of literature, art and culture – considered the work of art as the specific object of culture, as the source of human aesthetic experience and, at the same time, of cognition. He admitted the art, first of all, as the result of intellectual action. That is why, the primary thesis of his aesthetics underlines the connection between the aesthetic and epistemological qualities in the work of art. The text characterises this connection and refers to the philosophical tradition, important for the ideas of Karol Irzykowski.
ABSTRACT. Kunz Tomasz, „Próba nowej całości”. Tadeusza Różewicza poetyka totalna [“The attempt at the new totality”. Tadeusz Różewicz’s total poetics]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 6, Poznań 2006, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 121-132. ISBN 83-232-1703-3. ISSN 1644-6763.
The article presents a brief outline of the most popular features of Tadeusz Różewicz’s poetics, that question the main structural dominants and institutional indicators of literariness rooted in conventional modes and rules shaping a modern model of literature. It does so, however, only to suggest that Różewicz’s critical dependence on modern literary conventions is supplemented with a strong, though utopian, “totalizing intention” aimed at creation of the one, perfect, all-encompassing text. Somatic, organic relations between artist and his work, expressed through the impressive metaphors and images of insemination, foetal development, and birth makes the poet’s works a symbolic representation of the phantasm of a dismembered body. This fragmented imago should be integrated in the “total form of the text” which stands for illusive, both specular and speculative, unity of the self. Unity that is most desired, but always unattainable.
ABSTRACT. Jaworski Stanisław, Skreślenia – gry tekstowe Tadeusza Różewicza [Deletions – text games of Tadeusz Różewicz]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 6, Poznań 2006, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 133-139. ISBN 83-232-1703-3. ISSN 1644-6763.
For nearly thirty years now Tadeusz Różewicz has published his poems with their earlier version (e.g. Płaskorzeźba Bas-relief), (1991). It can be described in terms of genetic criticism, talking of a way to the ultimate version, a way to self-cognition. It is also possible – and this is the task of this essay – to see in it a specific text game, aiming at double conveyance. A new whole is being created, which consists as if of the discarded, deleted elements, but here revoked in a new function – manifestation of the text in its many plots. From the clash of rough first drafts, deletions and “ultimate” versions as if a new poem arises, “the third poem”, which exists only on the scene of reading.
ABSTRACT. Balbus Stanisław, Piękna niepojęta (Epistemologia jabłonki) [The inconceivable beauty. Epistemology of an apple tree]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 6, Poznań 2006, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 143-190. ISBN 83-232-1703-3. ISSN 1644-6763.
This essay is devoted entirely to the interpretation of Wisława Szymborska’s little known poem, Jabłonka [An Apple Tree] (1976) discussed in the context of the well-known Rozmowa z kamieniem [Conversation with a Stone] (1956). Interpretation of this work is based on detailed analyses the basis of which is the theory of artistic text, established in contextual semantics, showing how traditional and typical anthropomorphising figures are transformed in statu nascendi in extremely disanthropomorphising figures. And at the same time “the descriptive presentation” of the object marked in culture with a deep anthropomorphic stamp – undergoes a peculiar “eidetic phenomenological reduction”, which on the level of poetic outlook leads to the radical deprecation of anthropocentrism meanwhile on the level of constructing an artistic vision clearly presents poetics of the object epiphany and metaphysics of objects”.
According to the interpreter this metaphysics tends to the formulation of a question on “the truth” of “objective” reality, revealing even in the most “banal” “transcendental experience”, i.e. an essential contact, devoid of any anthropocentric usurpations, with any particle of existence. In this way a seemingly “trivial” and “naive” landscape poem opens metaphysical perspectives, which are later outlined in such poems of Szymborska as Widok z ziarnkiem piasku [A view with a grain of sand] (1986) or Niebo i jawa [The sky and the reality] (1993).
ABSTRACT. Tymicka Magdalena, Personifikacja teorii: gry intertekstualne w „Małym światku” [Personification of theory: intertextual games in Small World]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 6, Poznań 2006, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 191-230. ISBN 83-232-1703-3. ISSN 1644-6763.
The paper tries to deal with a relationship between theory and fiction. Reading David Lodge academic novel Small World, where the conflict between structuralism and deconstruction is the plot’s main theme, the author asks what happens when theory becomes a subject of a novel. Being a part of fictional discourse, turns out quite tricky for the theoretical discourse, as it could come dangerously close to irony, parody or pastishe. In-depth analysis of complicated narration levels and author’s strategy in Lodge’s novel is supposed to draw the reader from simple conclusions, in which literature poses an example for theory, or theory for literature. It allows to see the relation between both of these subjects as dynamic and full of contradictions, pointing at, and indicating each other’s limitations.
ABSTRACT. Krupecka Iwona, Ustanowić wartości. Problematyka aksjologiczna w „Głosie Pana” Stanisława Lema [To establish values. Axiological problematics in “His Master’s Voice” of Stanisław Lem]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 6, Poznań 2006, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 231-247. ISBN 83-232-1703-3. ISSN 1644-6763.
His Master’s Voice’s protagonist passes through the levels of the evolution “to values” referring to those described by Nietzsche. The starting point are childish skirmishes with God, consisting in experiments with values established in Western culture. In the same time the character keeps obligatory rules because of Nietzscheanian “must”. Another level is positive nihilism in which the protagonist replaces values by statistic concepts. The last, the most important, is the moment of recognition of “cosmic letter”’s senders as representatives of “favoring virtue”, and this act expresses Nietzscheanian “want”.
ABSTRACT. Sobolczyk Piotr, Od teorii do hermeneutyki. Przypadek Stanisława Balbusa [From theory to hermeneutics. Stanisław Balbus’ case]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 6, Poznań 2006, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 251-266. ISBN 83-232-1703-3. ISSN 1644-6763.
The article presents Stanisław Balbus, one of the most influential Polish literary theorists. Balbus (somehow like Barthes) began as a structuralist, but also practiced literary criticism of the interpretive mode, however later, during the time of the paradigm change in Poland, he evolved to the hermeneutics and to the interpretive paradigm. His case may be seen as typical, as one of a few ways of reacting towards a paradigm change. The author uses discourse analysis methods as well as a narrativist-constructivist methodology, and reads three books of Balbus: Między stylami (Between styles), Poezja w czasie marnym (Poetry in the weak time – about Tadeusz Nowak) and Świat ze wszystkich stron świata (The world from all the sides of the world – about Wisława Szymborska).
ABSTRACT. Jarząbek Dorota, Fenomen rozmowy w dramacie [Phenomenon of conversation in drama]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 6, Poznań 2006, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 267-273. ISBN 83-232-1703-3. ISSN 1644-6763.
The subject of this article is the departure of drama in the direction of conversation – a linguistic fact of great existential and social importance. Although conversation itself seems to be non-dramatic, in fact it revolutionises the concept of time, space, action, forming separate genres and trends in drama. The author distinguishes three models of conversational drama (in which a conversation became either a subject or a building material of the whole work of drama): the theatre of amorous conversation (A. de Musset, C. Norwid), theatre of intellectual confrontation (conversation in the drama of ideas in G.B. Shaw’s style), theatre discussing its own status and functions (an improvisation/impromptu genres). Thus, the drama based on the autonomy of conversation is not a 20th century invention, although its old, intellectual and rhetoric models have been replaced by modern categories: of body and voice.