ABSTRACT. Ulicka Danuta, Czy jest możliwa inna historia teorii (literatury)? [Is another history of the theory (of literature) possible?]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 7, Poznań 2007, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 9-29. ISBN 978-83-232177-2-5. ISSN 1644-6763.
This article binds several problems in which literature specialists are interested: in reference to the famous disputes about the theory of literature it indicates the need to redefine it, proposes is conceptualisation as a cultural opinion (utterance), justifies this need by the analysis of historical factual realisations of “theory” and conditions which reduced (monologised) them, and finally – it refers to the question of actuality of the “post-modern breakthrough” and the “turns” which announce it. The documentation of the proposed theses which revise the existing interpretations of history of the theory is being searched in the Central and East European literary studies of the beginning and the first decades of the 20th century, which has always been considered as the founding one for the discipline, however, since recently also as the source one for the analysis of the status of the utterances (opinions) expressed in it. The question asked in the title of this article about the possibility of another history of the theory resolves just in reference to the previous, nowadays mechanically enlivened projects of theory.
ABSTRACT. Bogalecki Piotr, Literaturoznawstwo jako roz-twarzanie. Problem podwójnego autor-stwa w tekstach Tadeusza Rachwała i Tadeusza Sławka [The literary science as de-facement. Problem of double authorship in Tadeusz Rachwał and Tadeusz Sławek’s texts]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 7, Poznań 2007, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 31-46. ISBN 978-83-232177-2-5. ISSN 1644-6763.
The essay is an attempt of rethinking a mode of authorship in literary science discourse of Tadeusz Rachwał and Tadeusz Sławek. Their texts is being compared with G. Deleuze and F. Guattari’s method of collective writing and interpreted according to theories of J. Derrida, P. de Man and M. Foucault. Rachwał and Sławek’s strategy of double authorship (which is not the same as traditional co-authorship) underlines the impossibility of recognition who is speaking in the text; therefore their collective books may be understood as a kind of performing theses which they contain (e.g. connected with poststructuralist “death of author” or a poet and God’s mystical co-writing). Furthermore, double authorship leaves its marks on structure of text. We can see a lot of techniques which make Rachwał and Sławek’s texts more complicated, e.g. fragmentary style of writing, using different types of typography and even creating an elements of visual poetry. These experiments and a new way of these texts’ being in academic public sphere make them rather ethical than scientific – the ethic qualities and poetic function seem to be more important than the science typical cognitive functions. Because of unceasing underlining a linguistic aspect, the texts of Rachwał and Sławek may be read as examples of rhetorical type of ethic criticism. Not only do they ask about a significance of primary ethical ideas like friendship, community or responsibility, but also about an existence of category of author in literary studies after linguistic turn.
ABSTRACT. Zawadzki Andrzej, Osłabianie Nietzschego [Weakening Nietzsche]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 7, Poznań 2007, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 47-63. ISBN 978-83-232177-2-5. ISSN 1644-6763.
The essay deals with Vattimo’s interpretation of Nietzsche in the context of contemporary critical discussion concerning Nietzsche’s heritage in the modern philosophy. In his early book Il soggetto e la maschera. Nietzche e la problema della liberazione (1974) Vattimo tries to picture Nietzsche as a philosopher of emancipation, who announces both social liberation of humanity from political oppression and domination, and cultural liberation of the symbolical domain (values, symbols, senses) from metaphysics and its categories like substance, essence, stable, immutable being.
In his later essays on Nietzsche, gathered in the volume entitled Dialogo con Nietzsche, Vattimo concentrates on hermeneutical aspects of Nietzsche’s philosophy and shows his influence on contemporary philosophical hermeneutics and theory of interpretation.
ABSTRACT. Tański Marek, Czas melancholii – czasem przemian (transgresji) czy czasem destrukcji? [The time of melancholy – time of transgression or time of destruction?]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 7, Poznań 2007, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 65-74. ISBN 978-83-232177-2-5. ISSN 1644-6763.
The main objective of the article is to discuss the time of melancholy. The author tries to triangulate the definition of the time of melancholy with the classic Freud model, concentrating on the role of the back reflects in every activities, lower of feeling and the needs for a system of morał values, untill to the self-assucusation and especially the expectation onto punishment. The starting point of this article has been organized in the model of the constantly repetition of the doubt, including the sceptical oneself-reflection, which does not onto no transgression (the characteristic point of the first stage). The time of melancholy (in the second stage) begins in to remind of the time of transgression, including the evaluating of internal area. To see the issue in a broad perspective, the author takes into account the relation between a man and his undertakings, such as: eftorts to be a through man, free from the despair, abandonments of lost object and in necessity to retrieval of oneself.
ABSTRACT. Kaczmarek Michał, Retoryka pamięci (z problemów mnemologii Vincenza) [The Rhetoric of Memory. (In Reference to Some Issues of Vincenz’s Mnemology)]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 7, Poznań 2007, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 75-96. ISBN 978-83-232177-2-5. ISSN 1644-6763.
This article focuses on rhetoric of memory in Stanisław Vincenz’s novel-cycle Na wysokiej połoninie, which, along with narratology, genology and other related issues, constitutes part of Vincenz’s multi-aspect mnemology. The discussion on rhetoric of memory, as the art of expression (oral and written) marked mnemically and contributing to prose of memory, centers on certain sets defining linguistic, stylistic, rhetorical and mnemotechnical means, appearing in the form of words, phrases, metaphors, idioms, and other compositional and textual ways of expression etc., which are linked semantically, etymologically, metaphorically or functionally with the fundamental lexeme, i.e. “memory”. The memory category inscribed in the Vincenz work is first of all viewed here in terms of style and linguistics taking mainly into account the issues concerning memory metaphors as primary figures in rhetoric of memory. Moreover, the problems of intertextual memory are outlined therein.
ABSTRACT. Kłosińska-Nachin Agnieszka, Miguel de Unamuno. Pomiędzy fikcją a rzeczywistością [Miguel de Unamuno. Between fiction and reality]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 7, Poznań 2007, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 97-104. ISBN 978-83-232177-2-5. ISSN 1644-6763.
The article Miguel de Unamuno. Pomiędzy fikcją a rzeczywistością (Miguel de Unamuno. Between fiction and reality) is an author’s metalepsy analysis, a phenomenon described by Gérard Genette (Métalepse. De la figure à la fiction, 2004), in three texts by Miguel de Unamuno: Vida de Don Quijote y Sancho (1905), Niebla (1914) and Cómo se hace una novela (1927). Author’s metalepsy, defined as transgression of the limits of fiction by an author, existentional metalepsy (understood as a vision of the world based on doubt, concerning the status of reality) and reader’s metalepsy (if he's forced to transgression of the limits of fiction) are the inseparable parts of Unamuno’s writing.
ABSTRACT. Górska Irena, O spotkaniach literatury i komentarza w twórczości Witkacego [On the encounters of literature and commentary in Witkacy’s works]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 7, Poznań 2007, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 105-122. ISBN 978-83-232177-2-5. ISSN 1644-6763.
In Witkacy’s works literature and commentary meet one another incessantly. On one pole a phenomenon of dramatising of theoretical texts, e.g. aesthetic sketches is situated, and on the other the trick of playing theory within own, and on the other a trick of playing theory within own dramaturgy. Both these procedures allow the writer to assume different roles, thus various attitudes towards his own and others’ theories. They both make it that the boundaries of literature and commentary are blurred. This also happens when Witkacy transfers his activities literally onto the margin [Marginalia filozoficzne komentarza (Philosophical trifles)]. The philosophical discourse played there in various forms (also plastic ones) makes it that the commented text and the commentary achieve equal status. Such a procedure also shows that reading is a performative act, and that the margin is no longer a marginal place.
ABSTRACT. Karpowicz Agnieszka, Kolaż – rzeźbienie rzeczywistości [Collage Carving the Reality in the XXth Century Art]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 7, Poznań 2007, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 123-132. ISBN 978-83-232177-2-5. ISSN 1644-6763.
The birth of the technique of collage in the XXth century is the attempt to break through the borders between art and life. The art abandons fiction, for the first time annexing into its field waste and splinters of reality and next entering the real life. Anthropological understanding of artistic phenomena enables alternative to poststructuralist and postmodern view on the art of collage. It allows a constructive question to the phenomena to be posed and answered: what collage constructs, what it expresses and to what it reacts, whether it expresses the new consciousness? The slogan: “life itself is art and art is life” is the effect of collage, which participates in all genres and artistic forms that attempt to embrace non-artistic activities, melt into the sequence of events, act in the real space, conduct single actions, blowing over like events in the real life.
Making art may be understood as the synonym for humanity. With the use the collage technique artists realize first of all that the artistic activity is part of reality and natural consequence of creative potential of humankind. Collage teaches how to locate pieces of art among other creative work. The collage technique shows that the Art is an everyday creation and output.
ABSTRACT. Lachman Magdalena, Literatura do oglądania? Proza polska po 1989 roku pod naporem kultury wizualnej [Watching Literature? Polish Fiction after 1989 and Visual Culture]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 7, Poznań 2007, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 133-158. ISBN 978-83-232177-2-5. ISSN 1644-6763.
The article investigates the relationship between Polish fiction and a variety of aspects of visual culture. Contemporary culture has reached a stage in which images hold central position. Consequently, word, as a medium of communication, is marginalised in favour of visual ways of conveying messages. Novels which have appeared after 1989 provide more than enough examples of close links between literature and visuality. Writers themselves are engaged in various projects which depart from traditional literature based on written text and engage in multi-media projects related to film, photography, advertisement or simply visual arts. Moreover, literary criticism accompanying new literature often falls back on visual imagery taken straight from visual arts; most literary reviewers find it handy to employ terms and concepts developed in the field of film criticism or used in writing about comic books and television. What is more, some writers take pride in creating literature designed to be watched rather than read. The inner mechanisms of literary market seem to promote visuality over textuality. Writers and critics want and love to occupy TV screens; they cultivate their public image and turn it into a marketable logo. Many PR strategies are involved to achieve full recognition of their name and work. The implied assumption behind these strategies is that literature alone is not attractive enough to be left outside of the reach of powerful media. This assumption can be seen not only in writers’ public appearances but also in novels they write. Motifs, self-conscious comments, form and structure as well as typographic layout on the page are the basic means to emphasise that visuality remains at least as important as written text. The article presents the most significant devices used to visualise literature after 1989. Furthermore, it compares contemporary fiction with the modernist literature where most of these techniques originated from.
ABSTRACT. Kraska Mariusz, Metafora w kulturze popularnej. Przypadek graffiti [Metaphor in popular culture. The case of graffiti].„Przestrzenie Teorii” 7, Poznań 2007, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 159-171. ISBN 978-83-232177-2-5. ISSN 1644-6763.
The author acknowledges graffiti as a medium creating its own situation of communication. Referring to Scott Lash conception of regime of signification, he underlines that graffiti is critical and destructive to official cultural discourse. This is a kind of anarchistic revolt which is shown within graffiti by a metaphor. It means, unlike to other writings of culture, invalidation of a cognitive function to pragmatic one. One can prove that graffiti metaphor, as a kind of activity, is mainly used in language and through it. In the field of poetics it is presented by destruction of general language forms, irony and humor, quotation and spelling variations as well as vulgarisms and purnonsens.
ABSTRACT. Choińska Bogna, Sztuka religijna dawniej i dziś – „Wędrówki po Europie” Aleksandry Olędzkiej-Frybesowej [Religious art yesterday and today – „Travels around Europe of Aleksandra Olędzka-Frybesowa]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 7, Poznań 2007, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 173-185. ISBN 978-83-232177-2-5. ISSN 1644-6763.
The article presents a peculiar understanding of religious art, which is possible to be found in Aleksandra Olędzka-Frybesowa’s essay writing. An artistic easiness of the usage of symbols is connected with two orders coexistance in a human being: a cosmic and a historical, sacrum and profanum. However, the crisis of European culture (which started together with the fall of Romanesque art) is a result of a separation of these both spheres in a man’s consciousness and of a return to Greek-Roman ideals. A recipe for dealing with the crisis within the area of the fine arts is supposedly not regaining early medieval heritage, but rather a humble mimetism. It could constitute an introduction to symbolic generalisation which the author contradicts with abstract thinking.
ABSTRACT. Popczyk-Szczęsna Beata, Tekstualność i teatralność [Textuality and theatricality]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 7, Poznań 2007, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 187-196. ISBN 978-83-232177-2-5. ISSN 1644-6763.
The book by Patrice Pavis Le théâtre contemporain. Analyse des textes, de Sarraute à Vinaver comprises the collection of essays on the contemporary French drama. The author proposes the textual analysis, which takes into account all levels of the composition of discourse. The reception of a drama is understood in terms of stage production made by a reader; because in the process of reading he both reproduces the dramatic situation (semantic aspect) and he decodes the situation of expression (stage aspect).
The above mentioned mode of reading may be applied not only to drama. Two texts have been analyzed in the article: the poem Terrorysta, on patrzy (The terrorist, he is watching) by Wisława Szymborska – an example of a lyrical statement constructed in a similar way as the theatrical situation and the drama Terroryści (Terrorists) by Ireneusz Iredyński – an example of text, which is characterized by the predominance of rhetoric over theatricality. The meaning of these works results from the oscillation between the structure of text and its theatrical potential.
ABSTRACT. Dobrowolski Piotr, Teatralne wojny z kontrolą medialną [Theatre wars on media-controlled reality]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 7, Poznań 2007, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 197-214. ISBN 978-83-232177-2-5. ISSN 1644-6763.
The title of this essayplays on words with a title of Noam Chomsky’s book Media Control and with a term War on Terror, both connected by exploring features of ‘mediality’ (media-reality). The author’s interest lays where theatre and media clash, giving friction of potentials that is productive by differencing ‘reality’ and the media. He attempts to retrace the aesthetic interpretation of the mass media relationship used in theatre, starting from the similar narratives that they both employ (basing on Polish critical reception of in-yer-facetheatre). Afterward he moves to a place, where the faith in an image showed onstage is undermining, to the position that counterbalances the trust placed in an onscreen, mass media reality (exploring a practice of The Wooster Group). In the conclusion appears that theatre enlarges a distance to its construct, in an opposition to the media. It is authorized to expose its own conventionality: the stage never tries to make an uncritical illusion of reality, theatre wants to set its audience free to interpret what they see; these facts evoke a natural war between theatre and the mass media.
ABSTRACT. Dybizbański Marek, O teatrze „science fiction” kilka uwag [Some remarks on the science fiction theatre]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 7, Poznań 2007, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 215-235. ISBN 978-83-232177-2-5. ISSN 1644-6763.
The science fiction aesthetics has actually never created (formed) its own kind of drama and in spite of attempts undertaken several times it has not been feeling completely at home. Theore-ticians (Theorists) of science fiction see the theatre as an inconvenient (troublesome) partner which “reveals the imitative character of the presented world and destroys the atmosphere of fantasticality”. In the meantime the history of the science fiction drama reveals quite an astonishing regularity, namely it appears that the manner of creation of the science fiction stage illusion is completely independent of the degree of technical advancement of the theatrical machinery. The better the equipment of the theatre, the more modestly science fiction appears in it. Co-existence of fantasticality and theatricality in the works written for stage, however, does not occur without any conflict and is more often based on respecting of limitations (restrictions) resulting from the system rather than harmonious co-operation.
ABSTRACT. Olkusz Piotr, Jeszcze teatr, czy już kino? Jeszcze kino, czy już teatr? O przestrzeniach wideo w spektaklach Heinera Goebbelsa, Roberta Lepage’a, José Montalvo [Still theatre, or is it actually film? The use of video in Heiner Goebbels, Robert Lepage and José Montalvo plays]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 7, Poznań 2007, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 237-245. ISBN 978-83-232177-2-5. ISSN 1644-6763.
The use of film techniques in theatre performances is no new invention. There are two distinguishable ways of doing this: in the first, media techniques are used on the stage only and bear no profound significance to the “actual core of the theatre” (Béatrice Picon-Vallin, Les Les écrans sur la scène, Lausanne, 1998, p. 10), or rather, they are used to transform the “classic” theatrical approach (actor who “here and now” – immediately – expresses himself). With the second method, the use of multimedia cannot be considered as an optional part of performing arts: the introduction of multimedia creates profound theatrical relationships, although the “here and now” setting does not apply. (e.g. in the plays of Robert Lepage, Heiner Goebbels and José Montalvo).
In view of the development and omnipresence of digital and interactive techniques, it seems that stage theatre intended to be “natural” can no longer ignore multimedia “as the actual core” of the theatrical relationship (it is not sufficient to simply show them on the stage). And similarly, the theory of stage theatre must modify its definitions in order to discuss this type of theatre which seeks to represent the relationships of today.
ABSTRACT. Bocheński Tomasz, „Sądy boże” opisane przez Witkacego i Gombrowicza [“God’s judgements” described by Witkacy and Gombrowicz]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 7, Poznań 2007, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 249-263. ISBN 978-83-232177-2-5. ISSN 1644-6763.
The article discusses two ways in which modernist writers represent a duel. Witkacy describes a dispute between an artist and a modern society which deprives it of its meaning i.e. an honour. Gombrowicz understands that artists has already lost his honour and therefore exposes duels as a deliberate deconstruction of matters of honour. Both deal with complex restitution of the meaning that is applied to art in the modern society.
ABSTRACT. Jarząbek Dorota, „Ach, bal więc bal!” – polifoniczność dialogu w „Za kulisami” Norwida i „Operetce” Gombrowicza [“Ah, ball...” – polyphony of a dialogue in Za kulisami by C. Norwid and Operetka by W. Gombrowicz]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 7, Poznań 2007, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 265-287. ISBN 978-83-232177-2-5. ISSN 1644-6763.
The article presents some reflections on a dramatic motive of a ball (including a masked ball) in Polish 19th and 20th century drama, and tightly connected with this a problem of a polilogue (dialogue of a group of people as opposed to an ordinary dialogue with two persons involved). A masked ball in a drama gives an opportunity to show various ways of concealing and creating one’s personality. It may be used as a sharp satirical cabaret, a grotesque composition on the edge of reality and dream (Za kulisami) or a kind of metaphor for processes of a human History (Operetka). All the cases are based on a fruitful use of a polilogue. It enables a playwright to intensify dramatic action, to give the show some scenic shine and colours, and also to penetrate into the question of characters’ ontology: their existence in the polyphonic dialogue as a real being or a sketch, a sign of a person, a chorus or simply a background.
ABSTRACT. Reimann Aleksandra, Tekst do słuchania (?), czyli uwagi o ,,muzyczności” dramatu „Partita na instrument drewniany” Stanisława Grochowiaka [A listening (?): some remarks about “musicality” of “Partita na instrument drewniany” drama (“A partita for a wooden instrument”) by Stanisław Grochowiak]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 7, Poznań 2007, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 289-299. ISBN 978-83-232177-2-5. ISSN 1644-6763.
The present article discusses the phenomenon of correspondence art in the drama of Stanisław Grochowiak. The title “A partita for a wooden instrument” is connected with music. Therefore, it is interdisciplinary. The main question concerns the fact how music can exist in the area of literature and how relations between the art of sounds and words influence each other.
ABSTRACT. Żółkoś Monika, Podróż do granic aktorstwa w teatrze Krystiana Lupy [Journey to the borders of actorship in the theatre of Krystian Lupa]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 7, Poznań 2007, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 301-307. ISBN 978-83-232177-2-5. ISSN 1644-6763.
The article deals with the description of originality and uniqueness of acting in Krystian Lupa’s performances. Author describes the process of creating the fictional characters in his art as psychical work, which is based on privacy of an actor. Trying to criticize the stereotypes about Lupa’s performances, the author makes comparison with Tadeusz Kantor’s theatre and his approach to the actors.
Abstract. Kraskowska Ewa, Doświadczenie a gender w literackim i filozoficznym dyskursie oświecenia i romantyzmu (zarys problematyki) [Experience and Gender in the Literary Discourse of the Enlightenment and Romanticism (an outline of the problem]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 7, Poznań 2007, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 311-331. ISBN 978-83-232177-2-5. ISSN 1644-6763.
The aim of this article is to demonstrate close links between ‘experience’ as an epistemological notion and ‘femininity’ as a gender concept. Experience is considered here within two dichotomies: experience – reason; and experience – innocence. They are traced here mainly in the writings of Rousseau, Wollstonecraft, Krasicki, Mickiewicz, Blake and American Transcendentalists. Both dichotomies constitute an essential part of the Enlightenment and Romanticism thought, art and lifestyle. In particular they construct the code of sensibility, which highly influenced the 18th and 19th centuries aesthetics, spirituality and philosophy. As a result of the cult of sensibility in Western culture there appeared a peculiarly gendered figure – that of a sensitive man, a feminized male, capable of experiencing and showing strong emotions. By connecting maleness with features usually perceived as typically feminine, the latter gained higher cultural status. The counterpart for the sensitive man was a reasonable woman, a female person endowed with traditionally masculine intellectual capacities. The discourse of experience has a special meaning in William Blake’s work and thought; here it is related to his anti-rationalist and anti-scientific worldview, as well as to his apotheosis of Innocence as the state of clear insight into the true reality – one that is hidden behind the visible world. From Blake, via European Romanticists and American Transcendentalists it is possible to draw links to contemporary counterculture, environmental movements and theories (eco-criticism, eco-feminism) with their appreciation of soft feminine values.