ABSTRACT. Popiel Magdalena, Miejsce Wyspiańskiego w estetyce polskiego modernizmu [The place of Wyspiański in the aesthetics of Polish modernism]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 9. Poznań 2008, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 9-17. ISBN 978-83-232-1917-0. ISSN 1644-6763.
The aim of this article is to try to establish the place of Stanisław Wyspiański in the landscape of early Polish modernism. The methodological foundation is the anthropological aesthetics of literature. Analysis of the literary and plastic work as well as of the artist’s remarks and observations dispersed in his letters and essays is the material for the construction of Wyspiański’s conception of art. The starting point is the artist’s existential experience, which assumes the form of atopy, experiencing of strangeness of that which is close. This experience becomes the subject of a literary transposition which is visible in many dramas: Wesele, Sędziowie, Wyzwolenie, Noc Listopadowa.
Its analogon is a dual aesthetic attitude which the artist assumes: an attitude of participation and an attitude of separation funding art which is based on panaestheticism or breaking of communication. In historical perspective the principle of artistic totality (“a play with fulness”) and a tendency to degradation (“a play with emptiness”) may be interpreted as a case of suspension between aesthetics of the 19th century and of the 20th century. Looking from the Polish angle, I propose to place Wyspiański in close vicinity of Stanisław Witkiewicz and Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz together with whom he would be creating a significant line of evolution of Polish modernity.
ABSTRACT. Bałus Wojciech, Do granic tożsamości. O portretach zdwojonych Stanisława Wyspiańskiego [Till the limits of identity. On the double portraits of Stanisław Wyspiański]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 9. Poznań 2008, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 19-28. ISBN 978-83-232-1917-0. ISSN 1644-6763.
This text is devoted to double portraits of S. Wyspiański. Macierzyństwo [Motherhood], a portrait of Henryk Opieński and of Eliza Parmeńska becomes for the author an inspiration not only to speak about plastic quality of these works, but also refer to fundamental questions concerning the cognition of human psyche. They also direct the researcher’s attention towards such problems as doubling, mirror reflection, or a motif of a lookalike.
ABSTRACT. Bartol Krystyna, Dramatyczność w antycznej teorii narracji i wybranych gatunkach narracyjnych epoki cesarstwa [Dramaticality in ancient narrative theories and in some Greek prose genre of the Imperial period]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 9. Poznań 2008, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 29-38. ISBN 978-83-232-1917-0. ISSN 1644-6763.
The concept of dramaticality, re-emerged after Aristotle as a topic of rhetorical interest in the classification of narrative which extends beyond the forensic. The essential point of the Hellenistic grammarians’ tripartite division of narrative was the category which comprises ‘made-up events which nevertheless could have happened’. In Greek this category is often called plasma (“invention”) or dramatikon. It seems to suggest that this type of narrative was a literarily elaborated and emotionally charged account of actions and characters invented by the writers, and approximated to our idea of fiction. Dramatically oriented presentation of plots was useful first of all to novelists of the Imperial period. The stress on producing a narrative sustained dramatical pattering and imagery, is also to be found in the epistolary and biographical genres of this time.
ABSTRACT. Salwa Piotr, Dialogowość w dawnej noweli włoskiej [Dialogues in the old Italian short stories]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 9. Poznań 2008, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 39-51. ISBN 978-83-232-1917-0. ISSN 1644-6763.
In the article are discussed various aspects of dialogic character, which appear in Boccaccio’s Decameron and which are signalled or discussed by the author himself (a dialogue inside the text, intertextual dialogue, thematised dialogue, a dialogue with the reader and the like). Against this background the narrative strategies used by the so called "imitators" of the Tuscan writer, who discard his innovative view are interesting. Some of them ostentatiously "do not notice" this problem at all, others deprive dialogue of its open and ambiguous character, still others make it fit the needs of political persuasion. This attitude is more precisely illustrated by means of an example of Novelle – Short Stories of Giovanni Sercambi of Lucca and the original novel Il Paradiso degli Alberti attributed to Giovanni Gherardi da Prato (these two Tuscan works of literature come from the 15th century).
ABSTRACT. Tokarz Bożena, Od dialogu do transgresji [From dialogue to transgression]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 9. Poznań 2008, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 53-68. ISBN 978-83-232-1917-0. ISSN 1644-6763.
The attitude of dialogue meant candour and creativity in the history of European cultures and literatures. It was reflected in the specific philosophical conceptions, in the alternative worlds which were brought to life, in the literary forms and in the art of creation. Its remarkable activation which took place in the 20th century is one of the characteristic features of that epoch.
Dialogism denotes an interactive structure with a variable dominant considering the replicated side and the replicating one which participate in the dominant. They are submitted to constant semiosis. Aiming at agreement, dramatic tensions which arise as a consequence of the presence of the two sides may be reduced in accordance with the logic of acquiescence or retained in the perspective of the logic of contradictions.
The conflict between agreement and selfunderstanding constitutes the drama which is the basis of all existence. It is transcended by the art – consequently by literature – in the transgressional processes, relativizing its own boundaries: ontological, aesthetic, structural and communication.
ABSTRACT. Płuciennik Jarosław, Dialogowość, literatura i wolność słowa [Dialogics, literature and liberty of speech]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 9. Poznań 2008, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 69-82. ISBN 978-83-232-1917-0. ISSN 1644-6763.
A point of departure in my article is Francesco Loriggio’s brilliant analysis Mind as Dialogue: The Bakhtin Circle and Pragmatist Psychology. My essay stands as a polemics with one of the main theses of Loriggio that dialogics should be divided into just two kinds: novelistic and theatrical one. I propose a more historical approach to the development of dialogics. In different cultural areas various practices and theories may form themselves in divergent ways. Since 17th century, the development of the dialogics traveled from an apocalyptic – and demonizing its opponents – discourse (John Milton’s approach in Areopagitica), through dialogics of cooperation of obligations and laws (Polish Socinians, especially Jan Crell), dialogics of deduction (transcendental cooperation in I. Kant), through the dynamic dialogics of induction and creativity (John. S. Mill) to the dynamic fuzzy and multi-valued dialogics of a concept of rationality in R. Rorty or the theory of (un)free speech in S. Fish. Dialogics is not represented merely by two discoursive practices. I postulate existence of at least one medium discourse: deliberative rhetoric.
ABSTRACT. Jaworski Stanisław, Rozmowa z samym sobą (do potomności) [A conversation with oneself (to posterity)]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 9. Poznań 2008, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 83-91. ISBN 978-83-232-1917-0. ISSN 1644-6763.
A dialogue of the author with himself/herself, with his/her own text can proceed as an utterance about intentions or about something that has already been written. This is as if a meeting with the Other, and an attempt at understanding him. Or a rejection. What is meant in this work is to look at this on several selected examples. And so in Przyboś theory became rather a testing ground for the new ideas. Since Kundera wrote that a novel introduces “the wisdom of uncertainty” then one might ask, e.g. whether in his The Art of the Novel he takes up a polemic with his own texts, just there where they border on certainty? However, Immortality, written a little bit later than The Art of the Novel, is already a game with this programme, with one’s own past. Here a game of unreality goes with the reader. In Stefan Chwin’s Kartki z dziennika [Pages from a Diary] this form of loose pages is a particular form of utterance. Going back to his texts, Chwin clearly shows his reluctance to be subordinated to some one sense; he shows the polyphony of texts (Złoty Pelikan [A Golden Pelican]). These voices are even more multiplied along with every utterance of the author or of the critics.
ABSTRACT. Nowakowski Jacek, Dialog z tradycją malarską w literackiej i filmowej twórczości Lecha Majewskiego [Dialogue with a painting tradition in the literary and film work of Lech Majewski]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 9. Poznań 2008, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 93-106. ISBN 978-83-232-1917-0. ISSN 1644-6763.
This article presents Lech Majewski’s works in the context of the intersemiotic translation: how the world painting functions in the literature and films of this author. Majewski attempts to make dreams of the modern synthesis of arts come true and in this he reminds of the activities of his Renaissance master, Leonardo da Vinci. This Polish artist by means of the painting tradition (both works as well as fragments of painters’ biographies), set in the context of other media (literature, theatre, film) wants to create a modern, intermediate garden of arts whose central topic is the vision of paradise. It can be understood as a place of existence of heroes of his works and – metaphorically – the language of art which the art uses freely uses various materials and media.
ABSTRACT. Jaworska Anna, „Album Orbis” [III] Cypriana Norwida – struktura opowieści – struktura dziejów [The structure of a tale. On Cyprian Norwid’s Album Orbis [III]]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 9. Poznań 2008, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 107-120. ISBN 978-83-232-1917-0. ISSN 1644-6763.
It is just Cyprian Norwid’s Album Orbis, a work “in sketch”, also called by him “an artistic wallet” but also “a collection of motifs” encompassing the whole course of civilisation of the world could be an attempt at capturing ”the whole”, revealing the vastness of creative powers of an artist-conjurer. Norwid reveals before the spectator both the spectacle of civilisation as well as the depth of epochs in which the time of history is concealed and through this forces one to confrontation with the remains of the past, pulled out from the memory and stuck in his Album Orbis. The discovery of the places where particular parts are connected is not easy, however, if one of them is found, the elements which are apparently alien to each other begin to create one tale. Creation of history appears to be possible only when time threshold is crossed, when the past, the future and the present concentrate on a particular picture, word, thought.
ABSTRACT. Pochłódka Anna, Młodopolski romans popularny – kłopoty z teorią [The popular romance of Young Poland – trouble with the theory]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 9. Poznań 2008, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 121-141. ISBN 978-83-232-1917-0. ISSN 1644-6763.
This article offers an outline of the history of theoretical interest in popular literature, in particular – romance. The author discusses mainly the research propositions developed on Polish grounds, starting with the differentiation of elite or ‘highly artistic’ literature and the popular one. Following Jacek Kolbuszewski, the author proposes to determine the range of popular literature on cultural instead of sociological basis. Also Anna Martuszewska’s notion is supported, who claims that popularity is an immanent feature of this kind of literature. The question of probability in the Young Poland romance is considered as well. The methodological ideas are illustrated by references to specific novels.
Popular fiction is multiform and set in the artistic, historical and sociological context. Relating to the presented material, the author proposes a thesis that in the period of Young Poland two currents of romantic fiction coexisted: the ‘tendentious-fabulous’ (represented by Anna Karwatowa nee Bardzka, Natalia Bardzka, Wanda Grot-Bęczkowska, Helena Mniszkówna) and the ‘naturalistic’ one (represented by Mikołaj Czerny, Marian Gawalewicz, Mieczysław Srokowski, Kazimierz Przerwa Tetmajer). It is determined upon the inherent characteristics of particular texts (i.e. style, construction of hero, manner of creation of the presented world, etc.) which current a novel represents.
ABSTRACT. Krajewska Anna, Dyskurs performatywny w literaturoznawstwie [Performance discourse in literary studies]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 9. Poznań 2008, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 143-162. ISBN 978-83-232-1917-0. ISSN 1644-6763.
The author discusses the reasons for the absence of the so-called performative turn in Poland and argues that the apparent lack of a theory of drama in literary studies has denied a possibility to have the changes going on within discourses of the discipline perceived properly. By making advantage of the notion of dramatic quality to determine literary epistemology (dramatic cognition) one can facilitate the process of redefining categories in literary studies. The author demonstrates the current shift in artistic practice from text-oriented thinking to that of a performative system effecting the reshaping of the discourse of literary studies and proposes accordingly a dramatic theory (of literature, aesthetics, anthropology and culture) that results in performance studies become one of the essential research methods in modern literary studies.
ABSTRACT. Sugiera Małgorzata, Przeciwko autorytetowi tekstu I: „Opis obrazu” Heinera Müllera jako negacja teatralności tekstu [Against the authority of the Text I: Heiner Müller’s Bildbeschrei-bung as a negation of the theatricality of the text]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 9. Poznań 2008, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 165-177. ISBN 978-83-232-1917-0. ISSN 1644-6763.
In Bildbeschreibung (Description of a Picture, 1984) Müller deliberately fails to match up with the basic tenets of the theatricality typical of a dramatic text. Simultaneously, however, he equally deliberately posits a challenge to the theatre and puts into question the dominant idea of the dramatic text and its stageability. The aim of this essay is to raise questions about the methods and principles of inscribing the author’s intentions in the text and the possibility of recognizing the text’s destination and stage potential. I attempt to answer these questions, reading Bildbe-schreibung as a borderline case in the context of Strindberg’s To Damascus and Brecht’s Massnahme in order to point to the basic relationship between the texts written nowadays for the stage and the modern stage practice, since without addressing this issue it is impossible to lay grounds for a new methodology of text analysis and interpretation.
ABSTRACT. Borowski Mateusz, Przeciwko autorytetowi tekstu II: „Anatomia Tytusa” Heinera Müllera i performatywny wymiar tekstu dla teatru [Against the authority of the Text II: Heiner Müller’s Anatomy Titus Fall of Rome and the political dimension of the theatricality of the text for the stage]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 9. Poznań 2008, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 179-192. ISBN 978-83-232-1917-0. ISSN 1644-6763.
Müller’s manifold critical relationship with the tradition of playwriting allows seeing his Anatomy Titus Fall of Rome as a borderline case between the canonical form of drama and the text understood as the raw material for the stage. The complex structure of Müller’s text may serve as a good material for demonstrating that the structure of the text for the stage is always conditioned on the one hand by the dominant theatre conventions and on the other hand by the receptive habits of the audience. The main objective of the present essay is to demonstrate that the theatrical character of a text is not an immanent feature of its form, but rather it is a manner of reading this text in a specific historical and theatrical context, with a specific purpose in view.
ABSTRACT. Bodusz Marek, „Ołtarz” Zbigniewa Herberta – wiersz, styl, semantyka [”Ołtarz”by Zbigniew Herbert – line structure, style, semantics]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 9. Poznań 2008, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 193-203. ISBN 978-83-232-1917-0. ISSN 1644-6763.
In this text I present the poem by Zbigniew Herbert “Ołtarz” as a text whose style and line structure refer to “Bema pamięci żałobny rapsod” by Cyprian Kamil Norwid. The poem from 19th century puts a special meaning as “the most outstanding realisation of Polish hexameter” to contemporary works. The hexameter that comes from ancient tradition (Homer) evokes associations connected with it: seriousness, pathos and also the distance to described events. Using the hexameter is an important clue of an author who gives information about understanding of innate “I” expression on the level of style, rhythm and line structure of a poem (“a gesture” of restriation to regular form).
Such poetic strategy gives Herbert a possibility of expressing his pessimistic and ironic opinions about art – “self-possessed poet” has a possibility of artistic object description which is not “a monument impossible to be destroyed”, on the contrary – it is an object that is under the destructive power of time.
ABSTRACT. Płuska Ireneusz, Nauka i sztuka. Wokół konserwatorskich prac nad płaskorzeźbą Stanisława Wyspiańskiego pt. „Macierzyństwo” wykonaną w plastelinie [The problems connected with the conservation of Stanisław Wyspiański’s bas-relief Macierzyństwo [Motherhood] executed in plasticine – science and art]. „Przestrzenie Teorii” 9. Poznań 2008, Adam Mickiewicz University Press, pp. 207-213. ISBN 978-83-232-1917-0. ISSN 1644-6763.
The problem undertaken in this article concerns a complicated, but also an extremely interesting both for science and the art of conservation of the repair of a bas-relief of a sculpture Macierzyństwo [Motherhood] executed in plasticine by Stanisław Wyspiański in 1902. Due to the untypical material which was used to make this relief, there are no practical examples of conservation and references in literature, this conservation work should be treated as a certain kind of experiment in art conservation which belongs to the realm of art, but which is also carried out based on scientific methods.
During conservation work on this relief particularly protected were numerous fingerprints of Wyspiański himself which he had left on the sculpture. These carriers of historical memory of the great master, invest the masterpiece with a specific character of the texture of a bas-relief and offer a closer contact of the viewer with the deceased artist and his work of art.