Sztuka tłumaczenia Spis treści


Computer-assisted translation



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CAT


Computer-assisted translation (CAT), also called "computer-aided translation," "machine-aided human translation (MAHT)" and "interactive translation," is a form of translation wherein a human translator creates a target text with the assistance of a computer program. The machine supports a human translator.

Computer-assisted translation can include standard dictionary and grammar software. The term, however, normally refers to a range of specialized programs available to the translator, including translation-memory, terminology-management, concordance, and alignment programs.

With the internet, translation software can help non-native-speaking individuals understand web pages published in other languages. Whole-page translation tools are of limited utility, however, since they offer only a limited potential understanding of the original author's intent and context; translated pages tend to be more humorous and confusing than enlightening.

Interactive translations with pop-up windows are becoming more popular. These tools show several possible translations of each word or phrase. Human operators merely need to select the correct translation as the mouse glides over the foreign-language text. Possible definitions can be grouped by pronunciation.


Notes


  1. ^ J.M. Cohen, "Translation," Encyclopedia Americana, 1986, vol. 27, p. 12.

  2. ^ Christopher Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil," p. 83.

  3. ^ Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil," p. 83.

  4. ^ Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil," p. 84.

  5. ^ Such an approach to translation appears in the story of Soviet Air Force pilot Lt. Viktor Belenko's 1976 defection, and of his English translation of his wish to deliver to Western authorities a MiG-25 jet fighter. Though he understood the limitations of his translation, he confused the western intelligence authorities, who read it as a threat rather than an offer. John Barron, MiG Pilot: The Final Escape of Lt. Belenko.

  6. ^ Samuel Johnson's preface to A Dictionary of the English Language (1755); Jonathon Green's Chasing the Sun (1996), ISBN 978-0224040105, about lexicographers' inconclusive investigations, disagreements, and expedient solutions undertaken for practicality.

  7. ^ Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil," p. 86.

  8. ^ At the dawn of European thought about art, such a distinction would have been thought ludicrous. The expression "art" derives from the Latin "ars," which was a translation of the Greek "techne." Techne in Greece—ars in Rome and in the Middle Ages, and even as late as the Renaissance—meant skill. It was the skill to make an object, a house, a statue, a ship, but also the skill to command an army, measure a field, sway an audience. All these skills were called arts: the art of the architect, the geometrician, the rhetorician. A skill rests upon a knowledge of rules; there was no art without rules: the architect's art has its rules, which are different from those of the sculptor, the general, the geometrician, the rhetorician. Doing anything without rules, merely from inspiration or fantasy, was not, to the ancients or to the Scholastics, art: it was the antithesis of art. When, in earlier centuries, the Greeks had thought that poetry sprang from inspiration by Muses, they had not reckoned it with the arts. Władysław Tatarkiewicz, A History of Six Ideas, pp. 11-13.

  9. ^ For example, in Polish, a "translation" is "przekład" or "tłumaczenie." Both "translator" and "interpreter" are "tłumacz." For a time in the 18th century, however, for "translator," some writers used a word, "przekładowca," that is no longer in use. Edward Balcerzan, Pisarze polscy o sztuce przekładu, 1440–1974: Antologia (Polish Writers on the Art of Translation, 1440–1974: an Anthology), 1977, passim.

  10. ^ As of 12 September 2008, there were 258,000 Google hits for "simultaneous translation".

  11. ^ The comparison was first used by the French philosopher and writer Gilles Ménage (1613-1692), who commented on the translations of the humanist Perrot Nicolas d’Ablancourt (1606-1664) and stated, "Elles me rappellent une femme que j’ai beaucoup aimé à Tours, et qui était belle mais infidèle." Quoted in Amparo Hurtado Albir, La notion de fidélité en traduction, Paris, Didier Érudition, 1990, p. 231.

  12. ^ Antoine Berman, L'épreuve de l'étranger, 1984.

  13. ^ Lawrence Venuti, "Call to Action," in The Translator's Invisibility, 1994.

  14. ^ Christopher Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil," pp. 83-87.

  15. ^ Crystal, Scott. "Back Translation: Same questions – different continent" (PDF). Communicate (London: Association of Translation Companies) (Winter 2004): p. 5. http://www.atc.org.uk/winter2004.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-11-20. 

  16. ^ Czesław Miłosz, The History of Polish Literature, pp. 193–94.

  17. ^ J.M. Cohen, p. 12.

  18. ^ J.M Cohen, pp. 12-13.

  19. ^ a b c d e J.M. Cohen, p. 13.

  20. ^ a b c d e J.M. Cohen, p. 14.

  21. ^ For instance, Henry Benedict Mackey's translation of St. Francis de Sales's "Treatise on the Love of God" [1] consistently omits the saint's analogies comparing God to a nursing mother, references to Bible stories such as the rape of Tamar, and so forth.

  22. ^ For another example of poetry translation, including translation of sung texts, see Rhymes from Russia.

  23. ^ Christopher Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil," p. 83.

  24. ^ Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil," p. 84.

  25. ^ Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil," p. 84.

  26. ^ Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil," p. 84.

  27. ^ Typically, analytic languages.

  28. ^ Typically, synthetic languages.

  29. ^ Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil," p. 84.

  30. ^ Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil," p. 84.

  31. ^ Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil," p. 85.

  32. ^ Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil," p. 85.

  33. ^ Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil," pp. 85-86.

  34. ^ L.G. Kelly, cited in Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil," p. 86.

  35. ^ Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil," p. 86.

  36. ^ Cited by Kasparek, "The Translator's Endless Toil," p. 87, from Ignacy Krasicki, "O tłumaczeniu ksiąg" ("On Translating Books"), in Dzieła wierszem i prozą (Works in Verse and Prose), 1803, reprinted in Edward Balcerzan, ed., Pisarze polscy o sztuce przekładu, 1440–1974: Antologia (Polish Writers on the Art of Translation, 1440–1974: an Anthology), p. 79.

  37. ^ Journalists' junket to the Netherlands gets lost in translation | Jerusalem Post

  38. ^ Vashee, Kirti (2007). "Statistical machine translation and translation memory: An integration made in heaven!". ClientSide News Magazine 7 (6): 18–20. https://webmailcluster.perfora.net/xml/deref?link=http%3A%2F%2Frs6.net%2Ftn.jsp%3Ft%3D8mtygbcab.0.ksqvgbcab.ro78ttn6.33435%26ts%3DS0250%26p%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.clientsidenews.com%252Fdownloads%252FCSNV7I6.zip. 

  39. ^ J.M. Cohen observes (p.14): "Scientific translation is the aim of an age that would reduce all activities to techniques. It is impossible however to imagine a literary-translation machine less complex than the human brain itself, with all its knowledge, reading, and discrimination."

  40. ^ Claude Piron, Le défi des langues (The Language Challenge), Paris, L'Harmattan, 1994.

  41. ^ See the annually performed NIST tests since 2001 and Bilingual Evaluation Understudy



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