Warsaw 19-21 May 2006

Pobieranie 134.01 Kb.
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Beyond Borders:

Japanese Studies in the 21st Century
International Conference on Japanese Studies


19-21 May 2006

In Memoriam

Wiesław Kotański

20 May 2006, Saturday

  1. Prof. Ewa Pałasz-Rutkowska, Warsaw University, Professor Wiesław Kotański (1915-2005) – Outstanding Scholar, Japanologist, and Foster-Father to Generations

Passing away of Professor Wiesław Kotański at the beginning of August 2005 did come as a shock to all of us, His students, colleagues and friends, who always had been impressed not only by His academic proficiency but also and foremost by His wisdom and richly warm human personality. He was an outstanding japanologist, untiring scholar, who studied so penetratingly many domains of Japanese culture, but mainly language and religion. Professor Kotański’s achievements especially in the field of the Kojiki (The Book of Ancient Events) interpretations caused a revolution in several branches of Japanese studies. Anybody who came into contact with Him was able to receive something of the spirit that inspired him and this spirit has greatly influenced the whole world of Japanese studies in Poland.

  1. Prof. Yoshikazu Matsui, Osaka International University, Characteristics of the Study on Kojiki by the late Prof. W. Kotański Compared with the Study by Kokugakusha, School of Japanese Philological Studies in 18th Century

Prof. Kotanski considered the nature of the KOJIKI to be a work of philosophical thought, and he thought that it told us fruitful messages. So it is very important for him to interpret the text hermeneutically in order to understand these messages.

To find messages in the KOJIKI, Prof. Kotanski analyzed especially the names of the deities appeared in the KOJIKI. He thought that its meaning can be read by decoding the names of deities in which the messages of the KOJIKI were encoded. To understand the role of the deities in keeping this world well-ordered, as the KOJIKI tells us, we should not take the meaning of each Chinese character, into separate account . It is the reconstruction of the deity's indigenous name that is essential to the process of understanding. After completing this operation we could decode the name. So he tried to restore the original form of the name of each deity by tracing the process of the word-formation in ancient Japanese language.

The Kokugakusha, who studied Japanese classical books as sacred books, are considered today to be fanatically nationalistic scholars. But it is often said that their method is not fantastic but scientific, and their interpretations are not prophetical.

Although Prof. Kotanski himself often insisted on originality and creativity of his own interpretations, I can find some similarities between his understanding and the analyzing method and that of kokugaku. I am really interested in these similarities. Either of them have a character not only to be hermeneutic and scientific but also self-confident and ingenious. In other words, they do not follow the theory of their senior scholars unquestioningly and search their own way. This is the reason why I continue to study Prof. Kotanski’s approach and respect his understanding of the KOJIKI.

It is true that Prof. Kotanski is well-known among Japanese scholars, but I must say that it's a pity that he is famous not as a prominent interpreter of the KOJIKI but only as a foreign Japanologist. The reasons why Prof. Kotanski’s study on the KOJIKI is not yet so popular in Japan might be considered as follows. 1) Difficulties exist, even among Japanese scholars, on how to understand his inventive method of determining the morphology by which the original name of the deities was formed. 2) Japanese scholars today do not intend to accept hermeneutic interpretation of the KOJIKI, which Prof. Kotanski considered to be very important. 3) Prof. Kotanski’s understanding of the role of O-no-Yasumaro, who had written down the oral traditions in kanji, is not accepted. Most Japanese thought that Yasumaro only wrote down what were passed form ancient times, while Prof. Kotanski thought that Yasumaro compiled it with his own will, just as an author of a book usually does. 4) Some researchers of Japanese classical studies are still sceptical about analysis by foreigners. 5) Prof. Kotanski's works are not enough published in Japanese yet.

Prof. Kotanski challenged to find the meaning of the KOJIKI by inventive method, which is to decode the role of the deities, reproducing the original form of their names, and then to understand the messages which the KOJIKI left to our modern society. I believe that such challenges are very significant and must not be neglected. We should also appreciate that Prof. Kotanski had studied the KOJIKI for more than forty years, which is longer than Motoori Norinaga(1730~1801), the most famous KOJIKI interpreter ever.

  1. Prof. James C. Baxter, International Research Center for Japanese Studies, Some Recent Trends in Japanese Studies in the United States

Gender, colonialism in the Japanese empire and its aftermath, and popular culture are themes that have recently attracted strong interest among scholars specializing in Japanese studies in the U.S. To elucidate trends, I will offer examples of published work that has appeared in the last several years and still-unpublished work that has been presented at conferences or seminars in the last three years. I will give considerable attention to scholarship in history, the biggest field in terms of number of Japan specialists and sheer volume of activity, but I will remark on research in other areas, as well.

Research on women has continued to enhance our critical awareness of the roles played by women and the ways they have been constructed. Gender studies has also stimulated reevaluation of masculinity, exposing hitherto neglected features of male life. Arresting results have emerged from same-sex studies. Gendering Modern Japanese History (2005) evidences the breadth and complexity of the gender studies field. Other research by historians and literature scholars also merits notice.

On empire and colonialism, many authors have drawn inspiration from postcolonial theory as they have investigated Japanese involvement in Taiwan, Korea, the Nan’yô, and Manchuria and the effects of empire on people in the “metropole” of the home islands. Analyses of discourse have been important in this research.

Japan scholars today are paying more heed to minorities and popular culture than in the past. Metaphors of geography, mapping, and the body have gained currency. Recent American scholarship highlights ways in which these topics and tropes intersect with each other.

  1. Prof. Mitsuyoshi Numano, The University of Tokyo, 二人の佳人の出会い――日本とポーランドの文化交流の歴史から (日本におけるポーランド文学受容を中心に





  1. Dr. Evgenya Saharova, Russian Academy of Science, The Main Activities of Russian Association for Japanologists

  1. 1. Brief history and general information about the organization.

  2. 2. Main activities.

2.1. Public activities.

2.2. Scholarships for students, post-graduates and young researchers studying Japanese language and Japan.

2.3. Publication activities.

2.3.1. “Annual Japan”, first number was published in 1972, in 2003 was celebrated 30-year anniversary of Annual Japan.

2.3.2. “Japanese experience for Russian Reforms”, is published since 1994, two numbers per year. Every number includes 8-9 papers of Russian Japanologists on the most important and interesting aspects of Japanese economy, social life, politics and so on.

2.3.3. Japan History text-book.

2.3.4. New projects.

2.4. Internet projects (official site of the Association).

2.5. Other activities.

2.5.1. Annual conference “History and Culture of Japan”.

2.5.2. Symposium “Current situation and perspectives in Russian Japanese Studies” (February, 13-15, 2006, Russian State University of Humanities).

  1. Prof. Takashi Itō, Tokyo University, Nihon kingendai no kojin shiryō to ōraru hisutorii(日本近現代の史料とオーラルヒストリー)


  1. Prof. Akio Komorida, Tokyo University, Shakaikagakuteki nihon kenkyū no kadai to shakaigaku kenkyūjō (社会科学的日本研究の課題と社会科学研究所)




  1. Prof. Sadami Suzuki, International Research Center for Japanese Studies, Nihon ni okeru ‘ bungaku’ to ‘geijutsu’ gainen no seiritsu

日本における近代的な「文学」概念は、近代英語”literature”の中義”polite literature”(ほぼ”humanities”)と狭義”linguistic art”を受容し、 伝統的な「文学」概念を再編することによって形成されたが、第二次大戦前まで「文学」概念の広義と狭義の二重性が存続し、かつ今日でも著しい日本的な特徴をもっている。その日本化は日本人の手になる中国語(「漢文」)の言語作品をも含む、国際的に稀な”bilingual”な”national literature”を 「日本文学」として制度化する(「日本文学史」の二重の発明)とともに、民衆の文芸を早くから公認し、また宗教色の強い近世までの文芸をも近代的な「文学」概念によって論じる習慣を形づくってきた。その概要を紹介するとともに、本発表では新たに、”fine art”の”receptor”となった「芸術」概念の 再編、および新しく造られた訳語「美術」の定着の過程について、最近の通説を補訂しつつ、二〇世紀初頭にそれが専門家のあいだに定着するまで過程を明らかにする。そして、そのとき、ヨーロッパの「ロマン主義」芸術論を借りることによって、中世的な宗教美術にこそ日本近代の美術が成立していたと説く日本芸術論が成立したことを、岡倉天心の説を例にとって、明らかにする。ほぼ並行する現象が「文芸」の領域においても見られ、これは、日本近代文学史の根本的な再編を促す提起につながる提言となるだろう。

  1. Prof. Arunas Gelunas, Vilnius Academy of Fine Arts, Japanese Studies – Between Pragmatism and Self-Discovery

Presentation deals with the problem of finding a “rational ground” for studying another culture in post-colonial era with the emphasis on Lithuanian case. In what ways should Japanese studies foster inter-cultural understanding, communication and, finally, cooperation? How should the students of Japan answer the pressure to explain themselves in their local contexts? Which strategies should be undertaken in answering the challenge of adjusting the Japanese studies to the “needs of the market”?

  1. Prof. Hideo Watanabe, Shinshū University, Chūgoku kodai ongakuron to Nihon no waka bungaku (中国古代音楽論と日本の和歌文学)






  1. Prof. Shigemi Inaga, International Research Center for Japanese Studies, Tenshin Okakura Kakuzō and Sister Nivedita – On an Intellectual Exchange in Modernizing Asia

The paper treats a case of cultural exchange between Japan and India in Modern era. Tenshin Okakura Kukuzo (1862-1913) ‘s stay in India in 1901-02 was a marked incident of the Japanese encounter with the Indian intellectuals. His friendship with Swami Vivekanada (1863-1902) and Rabindranatha Tagore (1861-1941) and others are well known. Yet his intense relationship with Sister Nivedita (1867-1911) during the preparation of Okakura’s first book in English, The Ideals of the East and The Awakening of the East (1902 posthumously published in 1938) has not yet been thoroughly investigated.

In the first place I will briefly outline the circumstances in which Okakura stayed in India. Secondly I would propose some of the concrete evidences which may establish the mutual influence which occurred in the elaboration of Okakura thinking of the Ideals of the East as well as in Sister Nivedita’s idea of the Indian national identity. Thirdly, I may argue that this intellectual collaboration prepared positive appraisal with which Sister Nivedita celebrated the new Bengal nationalist paintings at the beginning of the 20th Century. In conclusion, the role of female mediators in the colonial context will be critically examined.

  1. Prof. Konstyantin Komisarov, Taras Shevchenko University, Kyiv, Japanese Studies in Ukraine – history and modernity

The real origins of Japanese studies in Ukraine date back to the early 1990s after Ukraine proclaims its independence in 1991, when Oriental Studies departments have been established the National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv and later at Kyiv National Linguistic University. The first Ukrainian-Japanese and Japanese-Ukrainian dictionaries, Japanese textbooks and other teaching materials have appeared and the first research papers on Japanese studies were submitted at that time.

At present, the Japanese language and literature are taught as majors for bachelor and master degrees in five universities of Kyiv as well as in National universities of other cities, such as Dnipropetrovsk, Lviv, Odesa, Kharkiv, Lugansk and Zaporizzha. Approximately 350-400 students in total are currently majoring in Japanese language and literature. There are also secondary schools, colleges and lyceums where the Japanese language is taught as the first, second or third foreign language.

Although Ukraine did not exist as a state for a long time, the first hand-written Russian-Japanese and Japanese-Russian dictionaries created by Japanese sailors called hyoryumin (people who reached Russian land after shipwreck) show that the Ukrainian language and culture had indirect contacts with Japanese culture since the end of the 18th century. There were numerous Ukrainian words in such dictionaries as well.

The first Ukrainian who has significantly contributed to the establishment of the intercultural relations between Ukraine and Japan was Vasyl Yeroshenko (1890-1952) a blind writer and Esperantist who lived in Japan in 1914-16 and 1919-21 and published his works in Japanese scientific and literary magazines. Yeroshenko's fairy tales and legends were written in Japanese which he had mastered, and Esperanto, which he knew perfectly. These fairytales became well-known and some of them were even published in Japanese school textbooks.

The first dictionary in the history of Ukrainian Japanese studies was Ukrainian-Japanese dictionary by Anatolii Dibrova and Vasyl Odynets (11 000 words) printed in Harbin (Manchuria) in 1944 by the efforts of the Ukrainian Diaspora.

The first special edition of Japanese literary works in Ukrainian was a book containing 26 tanka poems by Japanese poets of the 5th-13th centuries translated by O. Kremen /Kharkiv, 1931/. However, the main advantage of this book is that it begins with an extensive foreword that can be considered the first scientific publication on the history of Japanese classical poetry in the Ukrainian literature studies.

In the thesis, some other Ukrainian translations of works by Japanese writers are analyzed, along with the publications by modern Ukrainian scholars who research Japanese language, literature and language teaching methods. In addition, a reference list containing scientific literature and fiction concerning Japanese studies in Ukraine is attached to this thesis.

21 May 2006, Sunday

  1. Prof. Chiharu Inaba, Meijō University Polish POW’s in Japan during the Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905

There were 71,802 prisoners-of-war of the Russian Empire in Japan during the Russo-Japanese War. The biggest minority nation in the POWs was Poles and the number was 4,658, 6.5 % of all the prisoners. Treatment of the POWs were basically equal under Japanese rule, however, the Japanese government established independent camps and managed special treatment only for Poles. Why was Japanese treatment of Polish POWs different from the others? The Centenary Symposium on POWs in the Russo-Japanese War was held in Matsuyama in 2003 and some on important material on Polish POWs were newly discovered during the symposium. In my presentation, I introduce the new material and refer reasons of the Japanese favorable treatment for Polish POWs.

  1. Dr. Agnieszka Kozyra, Warsaw University, The Notion of Faith in Philosophy of Nishida Kitarō

Nishida Kitarō (1870-1945), the founder of the so-called Kyoto school (Kyōtoha), was interested in Buddhism, especially in Zen tradition. However his views on religious faith were also influenced by the doctrine of Pure Land Buddhism. Nishida’s mother was devout Pure Land Buddhist and she was able to console him after the death of his daughter Yūko, being sustained with her faith in the infinite mercy of Amidha Buddha. Nishida also taught part-time at Shinshū Ōtani University (renamed Ōtani University in 1922), closely related to the True Pure Land Sect. When Ōtani Alumni Association planned publication of a book Shūsokan (Views of the Founder) in 1911 to commemorate the 650th anniversary of the death of Shinran (1173-1263), Nishida also contributed an essay Gūtoku Shinran (Shinran the fool).

Nishida states that ‘religious faith’ should not be understood as the act of believing in a certain religious doctrine, which is against ‘reason’. According to him there is no religion without ‘spiritual fact’ of the sacred and the absolute, which can be experienced, in human life. ‘Faith’ implies the act of self-negation, which reveals the true essence of the reality as ‘absolutely contradictory self-identity’ (zettaimujunteki jikodōitsu). Both reality and the act of faith comply with logic of ‘absolute contradictory self-identity’. ‘Faith’ is not irrational since formal logic with its principle of identity ((A = A) is one aspect of logic of ‘absolutely contradictory self identity’ (A = A and A ≠ A). Nishida’s interpretation of ‘religious faith’ is unique, since he rejects the dualism of ‘self-power’ (jiriki) and ‘other power’ (tariki), typical of Japanese Buddhism. Nishida argued that scientific experience (mainly quantum mechanics and Einstein’s theory of relativity) also prove his vision of the reality as ‘absolutely contradictory self-identity’.

  1. Dr. Monika Szychulska, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Natsume Soseki no “Bunchō” no kachi (夏目漱石の『文鳥』の価値)



  1. Anna Zielińska-Elliott, M.A., Boston University, Murakami Haruki and the Decline of Poland’s “Exotic Japan”

Without a doubt, Murakami Haruki is currently the most read and best known contemporary Japanese author in the West. This paper takes up the reception of Murakami’s novels in Poland, where there is now an ongoing boom of interest in things Japanese, mainly focused on pop culture, in which Murakami certainly figures. But it is also important to examine the interest in Murakami in the context of Poland’s long “Orientalist” tradition of interest in Japan, which has typically been more of the “high culture” variety. I ask whether Murakami is read as a Japanese author and read mostly because readers are looking for some “oriental” mystique, or whether he has transcended those labels and stereotypes and is being viewed as a popular writer of “world literature” who just happens to be Japanese. Has Murakami’s writing become crucial in the process of “de-orientalizing” Japan in Poland? I look at critics’ and readers’ reviews, as well as at Murakami’s own evolving position as to whether he sees himself as a Japanese author. As a translator of some of Murakami’s works, I will also consider the role of Murakami’s European-language translators in the “de-orientalizing” process.

  1. Marcin Kaczanowski, M.A. Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń, Kumagusu Minakata – Life and Career of a Genius in Japan and Abroad

Kumagusu Minakata (南方熊楠; 1867-1941), a world-renowned naturalist and demonologist Japan has ever produced, came back to Japan in 1900 after 14 years of unique study experience abroad mainly in America and England. He settled in Wakayama Prefecture, his birthplace, until his death in 1941, particularly lived in Tanabe City for 37 years from 1904 to 1941. Minakata could speak 18 languages and therefore earned the epithet ‘a walking encyclopedia’ for his native marvelous memory and knowledge of animals, plants, astronomy and history. He studied abroad in America and England in the Meiji era when it was very difficult to travel abroad to the foreign lands.

Kumagusu devoted his entire life to studies of natural history and folklore, and contributed a number of articles to the British science magazine ‘Nature’ and the British folklore magazine ‘Notes and Queries.’ He was also actively involved in anti-shrine-consolidation protests and the nature conservation movement in Japan. He was worshipped as “a great scholar with no degree” and loved by the locals who called him Minakata Sensei (the teacher) or Minakata-san (Mr. Minakata), while branded by some people as an eccentric person.
About 65 years after his death, Kumagusu’s achievements and life history has been made clear by a number of books and papers including ‘the Complete Works of Kumagusu Minakata’ and ‘the Diary of Kumagusu Minakata,’ and the research is still ongoing.

Nowadays we have the year 2006 which commemorates following events from Minakata’s life:

1886 (19 years old) Minakata goes over to America from Kobe – 120 years

1896 (29) Minakata’s mother dies – 110 years

1906 (39) he marries Ms Matsue Tamura – 100 years

1916 (49) he buys a house in Tanabe (Wakayama prefecture) – 90 years

1926 (59) folklorist publishes “Minakata’s idle talks” – 80 years

1936 (69) scientist has his Country Natural Treasure in Kashima – 70 years

1941 (74) he dies in his house on December 12 – 65 years

  1. Dr. Beata Kubiak Ho-Chi, Warsaw University, "Sonezaki shinjū" ni okeru higekisei no hyōgen (「曽根崎心中」における悲劇性の表現)

マクス・シェレル(Max Scheler)作の「悲劇性について」(On the Tragic) という有名な哲学論文に含まれた悲劇性の観念によると、悲劇性は

普遍的な現象であって、西洋のものだけではないということは明らかである。 この仮定の上に立つと、日本文化にも悲劇性は存在するといえる。


  1. Radosław Bolałek, M.A. Warsaw University, The Usage of Modern Technologies In Japanese Studies

New technologies had become a crucial element of everyday life. For gaining new customers each company ought to have own homepage. To improve communication many people are using emails. It is also hard to imagine ably working institution without computers with office system installed on it.

Nevertheless there are still many people that are not taking advantages of new technologies. That condition occurs due to bias against it and small faith in its ability to improve ones’ work. Sometimes it is only due to not knowing that such tools exist. Not everyone is aware that is possible to improve ones’ work, using new technologies.

In May 2005 there were made research about the usage of new technologies among japanologists. Research had a form of inquiry and it was filed by students of Warsaw University Department of Japanese Studies.

As a new technology author meant mainly computer (with software), Internet and portable technology.

The results could be described as optimistic. Most results were better than average Polish ratings.

  1. Jakub Karpoluk, M.A. Polish Academy of Science, The origins of Japanese Cinemathography. The Influence of Theatrical Conventions and Vocal Narration Eiga Setsumei on the Forming Process of Japanese Cinema

The lecture entitled: The origins of Japanese Cinemathography. The Influence of Theatrical Conventions and Vocal Narration Eiga Setsumei on the Forming Process of Japanese Cinema discusses a complex problem of establishing of the Japanese film tradition.

Cinema at it’s origins was not perceived in Japan as a shoddy entertainment but rather as a new kind of a stage drama. In first movies conventions of the reality presentation and the actor’s way of playing were completely dominated by the world of Nipponian performing arts. Japanese films, made in the Meiji and Taishō periods can be devided into three groups, distinguished considering performing tradition which was the pattern for each of them. The main role was played by the kabuki theatre. The other two performative traditions were shimpa and shingeki theatres.

Another phenomenon which in decisive degree had an effect on the shape of Japanese cinema was the art of oral narration - eiga setsumei (film explanation) performed by the artist called katsuben or benshi. They were cinema narrators, performing during the screenings and with theirs, sometimes sophisticated narration, creating commentaries to film, playing character’s dialogs and finally giving significance to the whole motion picture. The art of benshi performers has developed based on the traditional Japanese oral narration performances such as: etoki, naniwabushi and still admired rakugo. Significant influence on it’s formation had gidayū art of narration. The presence of benshi orators, during the screenings, questions common conviction of existing silent cinema in Japan. Cinema projection with eiga setsumei, which still could be admired in Japan, should be described in terms of performance studies.


  1. Prof. Zdenka Śvarcova, Charles University, Prague, Niji Kango: An Aid for Describing Cognitive Process

In order to learn more about the potential of human mind we strive to have comprehensive knowledge of its substance. What has been a neurobiological object for biologists, presents a philological subject for linguists. While the former care primarily for the mind’s natural features and genuine functions, the latter concentrate on its accomplished products. Among the many products of human mind there are reflections on the mind itself that eventually cast light also on its natural features and genuine functions. Linguistically relevant reflections assume forms of verbal units enabling a linguist – or a translator – to enjoy or to despair of numerous expressions referring to mind as such, its constituents, its dynamics, etc. Speakers of the Japanese language can benefit from a capacious storage of verbal units denoting nuances of not only the particular instances of cognition, recognition or expression but also of the complementary processes like intuition, impression, anticipation. An important group of such verbal units is comprised of special sinojapanese compounds within the larger group of nijikango. Statistical data together with close investigation into this part of Japanese vocabulary reveal a network of substantial meanings that can be helpful in making the so called “semantic decisions” when we try to describe mental processes including those scrutinized by specialists in cognitive science.

  1. Prof. Andre Wlodarczyk, Université Paris-Sorbonne, The Japanese Aspect – a Theoretical Framework

As a rule for many languages, the grammatical category of Aspect is Tense-compliant. I distinguish however very neatly the category of Aspect from that of Tense and I am able to show that it is often misleading when linguists are tempted to explain the meanings of one category using semantic characterisation of the meaning of the other.

In spite of the fact that Aspect is a rather complex category, my systematic framework provides concepts which are representative enough for the description of the Japanese language, too. Under the heading of Aspect, fall not solely the traditionally recognised forms (for instance, the forms -ru / -te iru in Japanese) but also many forms which are known in General Linguistics as "Aktionsart" (for example: -te hajimeru, -i-owaru, -te oku, -te shimau).

I propose a new and coherent interpretation of the largely discussed distinction between –ru and –te i-(ru) morphems. First of all, I distinguish aspect-intrinsic problems and predication related ones. Another important distinction made concerns the category of Im/Perfectivity as related to that of Present/Past Gerund.

On the other hand, Tense is described first of all in terms of logical causality (precedence and succession) of one given situation with respect to some other situation(s). However, in order to better understand how Tense differs from Aspect, we introduce the distinction between internal timing of situations and their external scheduling (Tenses).

  1. Dr. Tomasz Majtczak, Jagiellonian University, Cracow, Of Long Nights and Pheasant Tails

The aim of the paper delivered is to discuss certain fragments of the poem included under the number 2802 (scroll XI) in the oldest extant anthology of Japanese verse “Man’yōshū”. The new interpretation proposed for this poem regards two details. One of them is the possible reading of line four, i.e. “長永夜乎”. After a close analysis of the proposals put forward to date, only two (out of four) turn out to be acceptable as far as the grammatical rules of Old Japanese are concerned. The other issue involves lines two and three, which read “山鳥之尾乃|四垂尾乃”. Traditional rendering of this fragment, ‘like the drooping tail of the tail of a copper pheasant’, makes little sense and is consequently rejected. Due to the composite orthography of the poem, which uses logograms, phonograms and rebuses all mixed together, the choice of what function any given character performs must be made by the reader. The character 尾, used twice here, is interpreted anew and treated as a rebus which stands for the syllable wo (meaning in its first occurrence ‘male, cock’, and in the second – ‘tail’). Parallels from other poems are also provided.

  1. Prof. Jerzy Bańczerowski, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, On the Predicatifiability of Parts of Speech in Japanese

An axiomatic approach to a theory of syntactic flection in Japanese within the framework of a general theory of this category of flection has been proposed for consideration with the intention of searching for and refining the theoretical principles on which the theories of syntactic flection in ethnic languages should be founded. At first the primitive terms necessary for the construction of a general theory of syntactic flection have been enumerated and their intuitive sense explained. Subsequently, some relevant properties of the entities denoted by these terms as well as of those denoted by certain auxiliary defined terms have been formally characterised by a system of axioms.

The general theory of syntactic flection presented here operates, among other fundamental concepts, with the relation of syntactic flection, the relations of syntactic digmatification and paradigmatification, the categorial bases for the resulting digmatons and paradigmatons, and with syntactic homoflect and flexification. Subsequently, an attempt is made to apply this general theory to Japanese, while focusing on the predicatification of parts of speech in this language.

  1. Prof. Romuald Huszcza, Warsaw University, Jagiellonian University, Cracow, Theme as a Topic of the Japanese Linguistics

The notion of theme in Japanese is one of the most important and interesting terms, essential for any attempt of grammatical characterization of syntactic, morphological, pragmatic and communicative system of the language. There are several questions concerning the nature of theme which must be answered from the typological and more general point of view, namely its higly debatable nominal character, thematic-rhematic bipolarity in Japanese sentences, indirect and direct marking of theme and rheme, thematic uses of predicates and multi-level structure of the thematic-rhematic partition of sentence. Various models of formal and functional explanation of these phenomena, which have been proposed, differ from each other and seem to be influenced by typological properties of languages apparently distant typologically from the Japanese and this fact requires further discussion.

  1. Prof. Alfred F. Majewicz, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Linguistic Status of Ryukyuan from New European Perspective

On May 1st, 2004, Poland joined and became part of the European Union – not only the world’s potentially most powerful and technologically most advanced community but also part of the so-far most advanced intellectually social experiment in mankind’s history; thus, the utopia as old as mankind itself based on the brotherhood of all the people is becoming a reality. State borders conceived to divide and isolate start uniting and what counts are regions and their local peoples.

The basic principle underlying the unprecedented EU experiment is “Unity in diversity”, with the stress on the latter. Instead of waging wars for greater sovereignty over larger territories and populations, nations and states decided to share that sovereignty in order to, among others, create opportunities for the entire European heritage with all its components, peoples, their cultures, languages, treated as equally important no matter how strong or small they are, to keep developing and be protected.

Though still very imperfect, the European Union of sovereign states with its open societies and democratic principles, with a remarkable variety of languages and cultural backgrounds, with none dominating or dominated as the principle, is at present the only such political structure in existence and preferably a model structure for many other regions of the globe – and for the foreseeable future will remain such: multiethnic, multicultural, and multilingual, with each individual national heritage and the variety of languages, including these “lesser-used”, preserved, protected developed, and promoted. To fulfill the enumerated functions, the EU has developed numerous institutions, mechanisms and legislative solutions of which at least some could be adopted and implemented to other regions of the globe like e.g. Eastern and South Eastern Asia in view of the current ethnic and linguistic situation of the world and serious dangers it faces.

The Ryukyuan ethnolects of Japan undoubtedly are seriously endangered and need measures for protection and rescue, hence the paper invites to examine whether any of the EU measures, in this case the idea of the legal status of a regional language introduced into the European Charter of Regional or Minority Languages in 1992, could not decisively secure the future of the ethnolects. Incidentally, the very same idea could be an equally decisive instrument in an ultimate linguistic solution of the linguistic status of Ryukyuan ending thus the futile speculations whether the linguonym covers (a) separate language(s) or subclassification(s) of Japanese.

  1. Dr. Arkadiusz Jabłoński, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Researching ‘Respect’ and ‘Politeness’ in Intercultural Communication - the Case of Japanese

The phenomenon of honorific modification (HM) is usually described in terms of ‘respect’ and ‘politeness’. This approach is still very common in linguistics. At the same time, it is hard to explain what is the actual benefit of using these terms. The thorough analysis of HM studies in Japanese may rather support the view that the ‘respect’ and ‘politeness’ oriented approach seems to obscure more than it explains. The paper will provide a short review of Japanese sources on HM and demonstrate the need of a proper description of HM phenomena with respect to the requirements of intercultural communication.

  1. Motoki Nomachi, M.A. University of Belgrad, Nihongo no shoyūbun to fukajōtoseino mondai ni tsuite (日本語の所有文と不可譲渡性の問題について)


所有性というカテゴリーは、どの言語にも存在する普遍的なカテゴリーである。このカテゴリーは、その意味的下位区分として、しばしば可譲渡性と不可譲渡性に分類される。そのうち、とくに後者は統語的に特殊な振る舞いをすることが言語類型研究から知られていて、日本語もその例外にはならない。 本稿では、①不可譲渡性という下位カテゴリーの定義、そしてその下位分類についての分析、②所有性を現す文法形式のうち文形式の類型、③不可譲渡性の意味を示す名詞と結合する文形式、特に「彼女は青い目をしている」、「彼はひげがある」といった文の分析を目標とするものである。 また、この分析の結果が、外国における日本語教育において、とりわけ、発表者が経験したスラヴ語圏で、どのような実践的な価値を持ちうるのかということも、あわせて検討する。

  1. Jarosław Pietrow, M.A., Warsaw University, Nihongo ni okeru ruibetsushi taikei no keikaron (日本語における類別詞体系の幾何論)

The paper deals with the typology of the classificatory system in the Japanese language, seen as a phenomenon illustrating the cognitive foundations of quantitative way of thinking about objects. In Japanese we can clearly observe a form of quantitative categorization which involves various nominal classes subordinated to everyday human knowledge and characteristic hierarchy of things in direct environment, including traditional artifacts of culture. Therefore we can try to work out an entirely enlarged structure of semantic categories in Japanese based on a generally oriented geometry of dimensions and properties, which show numerous asymmetries and overlapping. The Japanese classificatory system seen from this perspective represents not merely a counting system of numeral classifying phrases but also a multidimensional and hierarchical scheme of sets and properties of categorized objects reflected in the nominal classes related directly to classifiers.


19 May 2006, Friday

  1. Małgorzata Citko, UW, Poezja miłosna Izumi Shikibu

Izumi Shikibu uważana jest za jedną z najbardziej znanych i cenionych poetek epoki Heian (VIII-XIIw.). W jej twórczości można odnaleźć wszystko, co dla ówczesnych arystokratów było najważniejsze, czyli pragnienie życia w otoczeniu piękna oraz wyrafinowanej dworskiej elegancji (miyabi). Często bywa porównywana do Ono no Komachi, innej słynnej poetki tej epoki.

W twórczości Izumi Shikibu ważne miejsce zajmuje tematyka miłosna, a szczególnie jej niezwykle burzliwy i namiętny związek z księciem Atsumichim, ukazany w autobiograficznym pamiętniku Izumi Shikibu nikki (Pamiętnik Izumi Shikibu, XI w.).

Jej poezja odtwarza bogactwo uczuć miłosnych pomiędzy kobietą a mężczyzną, a dominują w niej opisy: tęsknoty za ukochanym, smutku oczekiwania na miłosne spotkania czy bolesnych rozstań.

Urozmaicone słownictwo, liczne ozdobniki i figury poetyckie, jak na przykład tj., stałe epitety makurakotoba („słowa-poduszki”), czy słowa o podwójnym znaczeniu kakekotoba („słowa zawieszone”) świadczą o wysokim kunszcie poetki.

  1. Adam Bednarczyk, UJ, Złudny świat opowieści w „Sarashina nikki” (Dziennik z Sarashiny)

Wychowana w odległej prowincji na wschodzie dziewczyna oddałaby wiele, aby móc przeczytać cały tekst Opowieści o księciu Genjim. Jej pragnienie spełnia się dopiero po przyjeździe do stolicy (dla niej stanowiła ona synonim opowieści). Zatopiona w lekturze monogatari młoda dziewczyna snuje marzenia: chciałaby wyglądać niczym damy dworskie, oblubienice szarmanckich arystokratów, utożsamia się z nimi i pragnie żyć tak jak one. Ale to bezkrytyczne uwielbienie dla fikcji literackiej z czasem się zmienia. Bez wątpienia wpłynęło na to wiele czynników, choćby fakt, iż całe życie córki Sugawary Takasuego było jednym wielkim pasmem przykrości: wciąż ktoś z jej bliskich umierał lub odchodził na zawsze. Symptomy nieuchronnej klęski, odrzucenia i fałszu (itsuwari) rozpoznajemy już bardzo wcześnie, ale ostatecznie nastąpi to znacznie później. Najpierw dokonuje się transformacja sposobu poznawania fikcyjnych opowieści: od doświadczenia ich i słuchania po ich czytanie. W dalszej części pamiętnika zachodzi proces samouświadamiania, w którym bohaterka dokonuje oceny swojego dotychczasowego myślenia na temat monogatari, poddając je swoistej interpretacji. Sarashina nikki jest również odbiciem ówczesnego konwencjonalnego damsko-męskiego spojrzenia na naturę i wartości fikcji oraz jej ambiwalencję. W końcu kobiecy upór-zaślepienie ustępuje męskiemu rozsądkowi-autorytetowi i tak oto fikcja opowieści topi się w falach bezwzględnej rzeczywistości.

  1. Anna Nowicka, UW, Sylwetki bohaterów w Makura no sōshi a rola honoryfikatywności w narracji

Tematem referatu jest przedstawienie roli honoryfikatywności w narracji w języku japońskim epoki Heian na podstawie kreacji przez Sei Shōnagon sylwetek bohaterów w „Makura-no sōshi”.

Na podstawie fragmentów utworu o cechach pamiętnikarskich, które, z uwagi na występowanie w nich wielu sytuacji komunikacyjnych, wydają się być najbogatszym źródłem różnorodnych, często złożonych form honoryfikatywnych, zostanie zanalizowanych kilka sylwetek bohaterów ze względu na honoryfikatywne nacechowanie odnoszących się do nich czasowników.

Sei Shōnagon jako narrator pierwszoosobowy jest kreatorem świata przedstawionego, a jednocześnie jego składnikiem. Jej sposób postrzegania świata i hierarchia wartości są w naturalny sposób ukształtowane przez kulturę i filozofię Japonii okresu Heian, a także społeczność, w której funkcjonuje, a więc wizję świata dam dworu na dworze cesarzowej Teishi. Będąc częścią tego zhierarchizowanego społeczeństwa odnosi się do opisywanych postaci z pozycji, jaką zajmuje. Jednocześnie, jako jednostka o właściwym sobie charakterze i sposobie oceniania rzeczywistości, wyraża swoje poglądy i osobisty stosunek do ludzi.

Na podstawie wybranych przykładów zostanie przedstawiony wpływ zarówno kulturowych uwarunkowań i pozycji społecznej narratora, jak i jego osobistego stosunku, na dobór w kreacji postaci określonych form honoryfikatywnych, które, co za tym idzie, stanowią czynnik konstytuujący narrację w tekście utworu.

  1. Iga Rutkowska, UW, Wabi – próba ustalenia przyczyny powstania zjawiska estetycznego

Autorka w referacie pt. Wabi – próba ustalenia przyczyny powstania zjawiska estetycznego, ma na celu przede wszystkim przedstawienie najważniejszych problemów, które spotkały ją w trakcie prowadzenia badań nad tym, specyficznie japońskim, zagadnieniem estetycznym. Słowo wabi, funkcjonujące w języku japońskim od czasów zamierzchłych, znajdujemy je już w Manyōshū, na przełomie XV i XVI wieku stało się kluczowym określeniem panujących w ówczesnym czasie w Japonii trendów estetycznych. Okazuje się jednak, że było ono nie tylko zewnętrznym przejawem obowiązującego wówczas stylu. Wabi określało także sposób życia, nastawienie do rzeczywistości i system wartości.

To, co najbardziej frapuje autorkę referatu, to właśnie problem zaistnienia tak szerokiego, obejmującego tak wiele dziedzin życia, mającego tak ogromny wpływ na kulturę Japonii zjawiska. W jaki sposób przemiany historyczne i społeczne wpływają na trendy estetyczne? Jak jednostka, artysta, jest w stanie zmienić wyobrażenie o pięknie? Jak i czy zmiany wrażliwości estetycznej wpływają na życie ludzkie, politykę itp.? I wreszcie, co sprawiło, że zaczęto zwracać uwagę na piękno nieoczywiste, piękno szarości i brązów, piękno ubóstwa, skromności i niedostatku, nieregularności i starości?

Autorka pragnie przede wszystkim zwrócić uwagę na to, że przemiany w stylu życia i prądach estetycznych nie wynikają z niczego, że są spowodowane przemianami społeczno-obyczajowymi na przestrzeni stuleci i że zawsze konstytuują je jednostki.

  1. Katarzyna Sonnenberg, UJ, Co z humoru Ihary Saikaku można ocalić w tłumaczeniu? Analiza komizmu w „Kōshoku gonin onna” (Pięć kobiet, które żyły dla milości).

W wystąpieniu poświęconemu komizmowi w narracji Kōshoku gonin onna Ihary Saikaku chciałabym zwrócić uwagę na humor, który będąc uwarunkowany językowo i kulturowo może zostać utracony w tłumaczeniu, oraz na humor, który może mieć charakter uniwersalny.

Pierwsza część wystąpienia poświęcona będzie komizmowi opartemu na stylistyce haikai (głównie szkoły Danrin) i rakugo. Posługując się przykładami z tekstu, wskażę gry z dwuznacznością i kontekstem słowa. Jednym z istotnych zagadnień będzie użycie pełnych patosu sformułowań poetyckich w kontekście trywialnym oraz przeniesienie na grunt prozy charakterystycznych dla poezji waka technik obrazowania, takich jak kakekotoba czy engo.

W drugiej części wystąpienia zilustruję użycie w Kōshoku gonin onna technik stylistycznych, takich jak wyliczenie, kontrast, hiperbola, szeroko stosowanych także w prozie europejskiej. Podejmę również zagadnienie parodii jako intertekstualnej gry z istniejącymi gatunkami literackimi czy obowiązującymi konwencjami zachowań.

W trzeciej części wskażę przykłady komizmu sytuacyjnego, zarówno te uwarunkowane kulturowo, jak i mogące przemawiać również do polskiego czytelnika. Zwrócę też uwagę na sceny inspirowane japońskim teatrem lalek.

Na zakończenie zajmę się problemem „realizmu komicznego” Ihary Saikaku wskazując, jak poszczególne realistycznie opisywane sceny dzięki kontekstowi czy wcześniej analizowanym zabiegom stylistycznym (np. kontrastowi czy hiperboli) rodzą efekt komiczny.

  1. Rafał Tomański, UW, Film japoński po 1990 roku

Analiza obecności przemocy w japońskiej kinematografii ostatniej dekady XX wieku. Przedstawienie twórczości dwóch znanych reżyserów japońskich: Takeshi Kitano oraz Takashi Miike. Na przykładzie ich filmów ukazana jest sytuacja typowego japońskiego widza, konfrontowanego z zastanawiającą dużą dawką agresji na ekranie. W celu przybliżenia omawianych zagadnień w najnowszych japońskich filmach, omówione zostały również dzieła innych, kontrowersyjnych reżyserów, jak: Toshiaki Toyoda, Shion Sono czy Kinji Fukusaku.

Wystąpienie obejmuje również tematy aktualne dla japońskiego społeczeństwa, jak problem masowych samobójstw wśród młodych ludzi czy też spadek przestępczości wobec szeroko dostępnych pornograficznych materiałów.

  1. Małgorzata Kamińska, UMK, Rola grobowców kofun w początkach państwa japońskiego

Terminem „kofun” w japońskiej archeologii określa się grobowce kurhanowe wznoszone między IV a początkiem VIII w dla zmarłych należących do elity społecznej Państwa Yamato.

Wiadomo dzisiaj, iż najwcześniejsze pochówki typu kofun pojawiły się w regionie Kinai, w trójkącie pomiędzy Narą, Osaką i Kioto. Na terenie tym wykształciło się centrum polityczne, które od połowy III w. zdobywało coraz większą władzę w owym rejonie, by w końcu rozciągnąć swe wpływy także poza Kinai, tworząc w ten sposób Państwo Yamato. Wraz z rozszerzaniem wpływów politycznych można zaobserwować również rozprzestrzenianie się idei pochówków typu kofun. Od drugiej połowy IV w. grobowce typu kofun zaczęły pojawiać się na terenie północnego Kyūshū. Nieco później zaczęto wznosić kofuny na terenie dzisiejszej prefektury Okayama nad Morzem Wewnętrznym, na obszarze północno-wschodniego Honshū oraz na Shikoku. Grobowce wznoszono przeważnie wzdłuż głównych dolin rzecznych, czyli na terenach najbardziej żyznych.

Zarówno rozmiary grobowców, jak i ich kształt oraz wyposażenie miały za zadanie podkreślić prestiż i bogactwo pochowanego. Wzniesienie ich wymagało wielkich nakładów środków oraz siły roboczej. Do organizacji takiego przedsięwzięcia zdolni byli jedynie władcy, którzy skupili w swym ręku władzę polityczną oraz gospodarczą.

  1. Monika Bartz, Wyższa Szkoła Handlu i Finansów Międzynarodowych, Kaizen, czyli zarządzanie po japońsku. Czynniki wplywające na japoński styl zarządzania

Temat skupia się na przedstawieniu pojęcia kaizen i jego omówieniu. Japoński styl zarządzania różni się od typowego podejścia stosowanego przez wielu menedżerów. Zwraca się uwagę na codzienne doskonalenie pracy, likwidowanie sytuacji powodujących błędy, ciągłym kształceniu się. W tym celu stosuje się wiele narzędzi, np.: kół jakości, kanaban (dostarczanie towaru just-in-time), wykresu Ishikawy....

Zdaję sobie sprawę, że łatwo przy tym temacie popaść w techniczny żargon, jednak będę starać się przedstawić go w sposób jasny i interesujący, skupiając się tylko na najważniejszych zagadnieniach. Potraktuję go jako ciekawostkę.

W nawiązaniu do mojej pracy magisterskiej, która właśnie piszę, chciałabym również skupić się na czynnikach kulturowych, które wpłynęły na odmienność tego stylu zarządzania. Będzie to głównie wpływ Chin, religii jak również czynników geograficznych – wszystkiego tego, co wpłynęło na wykształcenie kultury na wyspach archipelagu japońskiego.

  1. Karol Żakowski, WSMiP UŁ, Rola Sōka Gakkai w japońskim życiu społecznym

Sōka Gakkai wywodzi się z jednej ze szkół buddyjskich, Nichiren Shōshū. Żyjący w XIII wieku mnich Nichiren stworzył swoistą syntezę nauk buddyjskich z rodzimymi zwyczajami japońskimi. Jak napisał prof. Wiesław Kotański, jest on: „najbardziej chyba japoński spośród wszystkich działaczy religijnych w tym kraju” (Buddyzm jako religia światowa). Często uważa się jego poglądy za nietolerancyjne m.in. ze względu na głoszenie, że naród japoński jest narodem wybranym. Sōka Gakkai skupia się jednak na pokojowej działalności społeczno-kulturalnej, jak np. protesty przeciw broni atomowej.

Referat opowiada o wpływach Sōka Gakkai w japońskim społeczeństwie i związanych z nimi kontrowersjami. W 1991 roku Nichiren Shōshū zerwała kontakty z tą organizacją, oskarżając ją o odstępstwa dogmatyczne. Cała seria zarzutów została wystosowana wobec Ikedy Daisaku, przywódcy Sōka Gakkai w latach 1960-1979, a obecnie przewodniczącego Sōka Gakkai International.

Powszechnie znane są związki Sōka Gakkai ze światem polityki. W 1964 roku wyznawcy sekty założyli partię polityczną Kōmeitō, która dzięki zdyscyplinowanemu zapleczu wyborczemu na stałe zagościła na japońskiej scenie politycznej. Od początku celem ugrupowania było połączenie religii z polityką, aby zbudować społeczeństwo idealne, rządzone przez oświeconych przywódców. Obecnie partia istnieje jako Nowe Kōmeitō i nie jest już tak radykalna. Mimo wszystkich kontrowersji, Sōka Gakkai jest jedną z najpotężniejszych buddyjskich organizacji japońskich. Zrzesza aż 12 mln członków i prowadzi działalność na skalę światową.

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